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European_History - European History The current editable...

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European History The current, editable version of this book is available in Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection, at http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/European_History Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License." Contents Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 1 Preface - A Background of European History .............................................................................. 13 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 13 Historical worldview ............................................................................................................. 13 Fall of the Roman Empire ......................................................................................................... 14 Barbarians unite ........................................................................................................................ 16 Romanesque and Gothic art ...................................................................................................... 19 Papal power in the Middle Ages ............................................................................................... 21 Society in the Middle Ages ....................................................................................................... 22 Chapter 01 - The Crises of the Middle Ages ................................................................................ 23 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 23 New Breeds of Art .................................................................................................................... 25 Painting ................................................................................................................................. 25 Literature ............................................................................................................................... 25 Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) ............................................................................................. 26 Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400) ......................................................................................... 27 The Hundred Years War ........................................................................................................... 27 The Rise of Towns and Commerce ........................................................................................... 28
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Growth of National Monarchies ............................................................................................... 28 The Black Death ....................................................................................................................... 29 Causes ................................................................................................................................... 29 Responses to the Plague ........................................................................................................ 30 Consequences of the Plague .................................................................................................. 30 Challenges to Spiritual Authority at the End of the Middle Ages ............................................ 31 The Plague ............................................................................................................................ 31 Heretical Movements and People ......................................................................................... 31 Free Spirits ........................................................................................................................ 31 The Lollards and John Wycliffe ....................................................................................... 31 Jan Hus (1369-1415) in Bohemia ..................................................................................... 32 Corruption in the Church ...................................................................................................... 32 The Great Schism .................................................................................................................. 32 Chapter 02 - Renaissance Europe ................................................................................................. 33 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 33 Origins ....................................................................................................................................... 33 Social Order and Cultural Change ............................................................................................ 34 The Household ...................................................................................................................... 34 Underclass ............................................................................................................................. 34 Hard Times for Business ....................................................................................................... 34 The Birth of Humanism ............................................................................................................ 34 Italian Humanists .................................................................................................................. 35 Northern Humanists .............................................................................................................. 36 Arts ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Leonardo da Vinci ................................................................................................................. 36 Michelangelo ......................................................................................................................... 37 Raphael ................................................................................................................................. 38 The Prince ................................................................................................................................. 38 Northern Renaissance vs. Southern Renaissance ...................................................................... 38 The New Monarchies ................................................................................................................ 39 France .................................................................................................................................... 39 England ................................................................................................................................. 39 Spain ..................................................................................................................................... 40 Holy Roman Empire ............................................................................................................. 40
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Ottoman Turks ...................................................................................................................... 40 The Rise of Court Life .............................................................................................................. 40 Chapter 03 - Exploration and Discovery ...................................................................................... 41 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 41 Causes of the Age of Exploration ............................................................................................. 41 Portuguese Roles in Early Exploration ..................................................................................... 42 Important Portuguese Explorers ............................................................................................... 43 Pedro Alvarez Cabral ........................................................................................................ 43 Ferdinand Magellan .......................................................................................................... 43 Francis Xavier ................................................................................................................... 43 Prince Henry ......................................................................................................................... 44 Early Spanish Explorers ............................................................................................................ 44 Francisco Pizarro .................................................................................................................. 44 Christopher Columbus .......................................................................................................... 44 Ferdinand Magellan (Fernando de Magalhães) .................................................................... 44 Vasco Nuñez de Balboa ........................................................................................................ 44 Hernando Cortés ................................................................................................................... 44 Bartolomé de las Casas ......................................................................................................... 44 Juan Ponce de León .............................................................................................................. 45 English Explorers ...................................................................................................................... 45 Sir Francis Drake .................................................................................................................. 45 John Cabot ............................................................................................................................ 45 French Explorers ....................................................................................................................... 45 Rene-Robert de La Salle ....................................................................................................... 45 Father Jacques Marquette ..................................................................................................... 45 Louis Jolliet ........................................................................................................................... 45 Jacques Cartier ...................................................................................................................... 45 Samuel de Champlain ........................................................................................................... 45 Dutch Explorers ........................................................................................................................ 45 Willem Barentsz .................................................................................................................... 45 Henry Hudson ....................................................................................................................... 46 Willem Janszoon ................................................................................................................... 47 Abel Tasman ......................................................................................................................... 47 Results of the Age of Exploration ............................................................................................. 48
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Chapter 04 - Challenges to Spiritual Authority ............................................................................ 48 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 48 Causes of the Protestant Reformation ....................................................................................... 49 Church Corruption ................................................................................................................ 49 Reactions to Church Corruption ........................................................................................... 49 Key Persons of the Reformation ............................................................................................... 50 Martin Luther ........................................................................................................................ 50 95 Theses ........................................................................................................................... 50 Excommunication ............................................................................................................. 50 Diet of Worms ................................................................................................................... 50 Lutheranism ...................................................................................................................... 51 Justification by Faith ..................................................................................................... 51 The Bible as supreme authority .................................................................................... 51 The Sacraments ............................................................................................................. 51 Huldrych Zwingli, Zwinglianism .......................................................................................... 52 John Calvin, Calvinism ......................................................................................................... 52 Predestination .................................................................................................................... 52 The Sacraments ................................................................................................................. 53 Huguenots ............................................................................................................................. 53 Chart of Key Religions ............................................................................................................. 53 The Counter-Reformation ......................................................................................................... 55 Council of Trent, 1545-1563 ................................................................................................. 55
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