16-1 TERMS - Glossary # 16 Philosophy/theories English...

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Glossary # 16 1. Absolute monarchy: An absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch dictator or ruler exercises ultimate governing authority over the state and its subjects, as both head of state and head of government. 2. Adam Smith: Scottish moral philosopher and economist, he is known primarily as the author of two treatises: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). He is the proponent of capitalism, free trade, and libertarianism. The Wealth of Nations is one of the earliest attempts to systematically study the historical development of industry and commerce in Europe, as well as a sustained attack on the doctrines of mercantilism. 3. Anabaptists: began with the Radical Reformers in the 16th century. Medieval antecedents may include the Brethren of the Common Life , the Hussites , Dutch Sacramentists and some forms of monasticism . 4. Anglican Church: The English church was under papal authority for nearly a thousand years, before separating from Rome in 1534 during the reign of King Henry VIII . A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English church such as Lollardy , but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn . 5. Bill of Rights (England): The Bill of Rights is an act of the Parliament of England in December 1689 and was a re-statement of the Declaration of Right, presented by the Convention Parliament to William and Mary in March 1688, inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England. It enumerates certain rights to which subjects were thought to be entitled: asserting subjects' right to petition the monarch, as well as to bear arms in defence. It also sets out certain constitutional requirements of the Crown to seek the consent of the people, as represented in parliament. 6. Cabal: Cabal, inner group of advisers to Charles II of England. Although they were never a working ministry, one or more of this group dominated court policy from 1667 through 1673. 7. Cabinet: Until at least the sixteenth century, individual Officers of State had separate property, powers and responsibilities granted with their separate offices by Royal Command, and the Crown and the Privy Council constituted the only coordinating authorities. Charles I began a formal "Cabinet Council" from his accession in 1625, as his Privy Council, was evidently not private enough. 8. Calvinism: international influence on the development of the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation began in 1534. That marks his start on the first edition of Institutes of the Christian Religion. The Institutes, together with Calvin's polemical and pastoral works, his contributions to confessional documents for use in churches, and his massive outpouring of commentary on the Bible. Evangelical churches began to form after Martin Luther was excommunicated from the
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16-1 TERMS - Glossary # 16 Philosophy/theories English...

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