ap_review_treaties - AP European History Treatise on...

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AP European History Treatise on Treaties Following is a short list of some various Treaties, Peace Settlements, and so forth that you need to know. In each case we ask “What?” This means “What did it do?” We also ask “Who?” to mean “who were the signatories to the treaty?” Finally, we include the terms of the treaty and, where needed, further commentary. Happy studying! THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG (1555) What? Ended Religious Wars in the HRE and environs that began in 1521 Who? HRE and miscellaneous German principalities Terms: Established "Cuius regio eius religio" (“the religion of the Prince is the religion of the people”). Ecclesiastical Reservation - Catholic Bishops who convert have to leave and let another Catholic take over. It's a big victory for Lutherans, but Calvinists (and other forms of Protestantism) are not tolerated. THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA (1648) What? Ended the 30 Years War which began with the Defenestration of Prague in 1618 Who? France, HRE, miscellaneous German principalities, Sweden, Holland Terms: Renews the Peace of Augsburg, but tolerates Calvinism. It is a checkmate to the Counter Reformation. HRE loses the Swiss cantons and the Dutch. France gets parts of Alsace and Lorraine bishoprics. > 300 German states get rights to conduct diplomacy and make treaties with foreign powers. (Bad news for the HRE.) HRE may make no laws, enact no taxes, recruit no soldiers, or make war or conclude peace without consent of the imperial estates. (More bad news.) Sweden gets land on the southern side of the Baltic (N. Germany) Commentary: This peace marks the advent of the STATENSYSTEM. It forestalls German unification both politically and economically. It frustrates the German Habsburgs. The mouths of German rivers are now controlled by non-Germans: Oder, Elbe and Weser are controlled by the Swedes; Rhine and Scheldt by the Dutch. THE PEACE OF UTRECHT (1714) What? Ended the War of Spanish Succession Who? With the addition of England, the same powers who made the Peace of Westphalia Terms: It partitions the world of Spain. British get Gibraltar and Minorca. The Duke of Savoy (aka Piedmont) gets Sardinia and it becomes the KINGDOM of Sardinia (around which Italy will eventually unite) Austria gets Milan, Naples, Sicily and Spanish Netherlands (soon to be Belgium) that become, of course, the Austrian Netherlands. Louis XIV's grandson becomes Philip V of Spain with the understanding that the thrones
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of France and Spain will never be inherited by the same person. France gives Britain Newfoundland and Nova Scotia and Hudson's Bay Territory. France keeps Louis XIV's gains in Franche-Comte and Alsace/Lorraine. The Dutch get guarantees of their security. "Dutch Barrier" forts are set up in Belgium. The Grand Duchy of Brandenburg becomes
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ap_review_treaties - AP European History Treatise on...

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