Chapter 23 A - Chapter 23: IDEOLOGIES and UPHEAVALS, 1815 -...

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Chapter 23: IDEOLOGIES and UPHEAVALS, 1815 - 1850 The momentous economic and political transformation began in the late 18th century with the Industrial Revolution in England and then the French Revolution . Until about 1815, these economic and political revolutions were separate, involving different countries and activities and proceeding at very different paces. The economic and political revolutions worked at cross- purposes and even neutralized each other. After peace returned in 1815, the situation changed. Economic and political changes tended to fuse , reinforcing each other and bringing about what historian Eric Hobsbawm has incisively called the dual revolution ”. The dual revolution also posed a tremendous intellectual challenge. The meanings of the economic, political, and social changes that were occurring as well as the ways they could be shaped by human action were anything but clear. These changes fascinated observers and stimulated the growth of new ideas and powerful ideolog ies. The most important of these were conservatism , liberalism , nationalism , and socialism . A. The Peace Settlement: The triumph of revolutionary economic and political forces was by no means certain in 1814The conservative aristocratic monarchies, with their pre-industrial armies and economies appeared firmly in control once again. France had been decisively defeated by the on-again, off- again alliance of Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain. That alliance had been strengthened and reaffirmed in March 1814 when the allies pledged not only to defeat France but also to hold it in line for twenty years thereafter. The Quadruple Alliance had then forced Napoleon to abdicate in April 1814 and restored the Bourbon dynasty to the French throne. But there were many other international questions outstanding, and the allies agreed to meet in Vienna to fashion a general peace settlement. Interrupted by Napoleon’s desperate gamble during the Hundred Days , the allies concluded their negotiations at the Congress of Vienna after Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Waterloo . 1. The European Balance of Power: The allied powers were concerned first and foremost with the defeated enemy, France. Agreeing to the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty, the allies signed the first Peace of Paris with Louis XVIII on May 30, 1814. The allies were quite lenient toward France. France was given the boundaries it possessed in 1792, which were larger than those of 1789. France lost only the territories it had conquered in Italy, Germany, and the Low Countries , in addition to a few colonial possessions. Nor did France have to pay any war reparation s. Thus the victorious powers did not punish harshly, and they did not foment a spirit of injustice and revenge in the defeated country. When the four allies met together at the
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2010 for the course AP EUROPEA 109 taught by Professor Graham during the Spring '10 term at UPB Colombia.

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Chapter 23 A - Chapter 23: IDEOLOGIES and UPHEAVALS, 1815 -...

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