IDEOLOGIES and UPHEAVALS, 1815 - 1850
economic and political transformation began in the late 18th century with the
in England and then the
Until about 1815, these
economic and political revolutions were separate, involving different countries and activities and
proceeding at very different paces. The economic and political revolutions worked at
After peace returned in 1815, the situation changed.
Economic and political changes tended
, reinforcing each other and bringing about what historian Eric Hobsbawm has incisively
The dual revolution also posed a tremendous intellectual challenge.
The meanings of the
economic, political, and social changes that were occurring as well as the ways they could be
shaped by human action were anything but clear.
stimulated the growth of new ideas and powerful
The most important of these were
A. The Peace Settlement:
The triumph of revolutionary economic and political forces was by no means certain in
1814The conservative aristocratic monarchies, with their pre-industrial armies and economies
appeared firmly in control once again.
France had been decisively defeated by the on-again, off-
again alliance of
Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain.
That alliance had been strengthened
in March 1814 when the allies pledged not only to defeat France but also to
in line for twenty years thereafter.
had then forced
in April 1814 and
to the French throne.
But there were many other
international questions outstanding, and the allies agreed to meet in Vienna to fashion a general
Interrupted by Napoleon’s desperate gamble during the
allies concluded their negotiations at the
Congress of Vienna
after Napoleon’s defeat at the
1. The European Balance of Power:
The allied powers were concerned first and foremost with the defeated enemy, France.
Agreeing to the
of the Bourbon dynasty, the allies signed the
first Peace of Paris with
on May 30, 1814.
The allies were quite
France was given the boundaries it possessed
in 1792, which were larger than those of 1789.
France lost only the territories it had conquered in
Italy, Germany, and the
, in addition to a few colonial possessions.
Nor did France
have to pay any war
Thus the victorious powers did not punish harshly, and they did
a spirit of injustice and revenge in the defeated country.
When the four allies met together at the