The Age of Religious and Civil Wars

The Age of Religious and Civil Wars - The Age of Religious...

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The Age of Religious and Civil Wars The Civil Wars over Dynastic Power and Religion The period from approximately 1560 to 1648 witnessed continuing warfare, primarily between Protestants and Catholics. Though religion was not the only reason for the wars – occasionally Catholics and Protestants were allies – religion was the dominant cause of the bloodshed. The other cause was Lust for Power. Many Princes and Kings used Religion as an Excuse to gain Political Power In the latter half of the 16th century, the fighting was along the Atlantic seaboard between Calvinists and Catholics; after 1600, the warfare spread to Germany where Calvinists, Lutherans, and Catholics fought. Early Civil Wars over Religion – ended by Peace of Augsburg in 1555 - Italian Peninsula Wars • Spanish and French trying to control Italy and the Papacy = sacking of Florence and Rome Treaty of Hapsburg in 1559 ended these wars – Turkish Invasion of Eastern Europe – HRE Charles V defeated them at Vienna in 1529 The Wars Spread and Move North • The Catholics attempted to spread Catholicism and retake the Protestant areas • Calvinists spread and worked hard to become a political force across Europe • The Reformation divided Europe politically • Protestant Princes began to fight Catholic Princes for power and land all over Europe • Kings began to take sides and the wars grew • Peace of Augsburg (1555) stated that Catholics and Lutheran Princes would not fight each other; Calvinists and Ana-Baptists were not included and often attacked The Wars • French Civil and Religious Wars War of 3 Henry’s:1556-89) – Protestant Henry VI wins and becomes Catholic • Netherlands (P) War for Independence from Spain(C) (1560-90s) – Protestant Netherlands win and split from Spain – Catholic Belgium divides from Netherlands and remains part of Catholic Spain • Spain (C) vs. England (P) (Spanish Armada, 1588) – England wins 30 Years War (1618-1648) fought mostly in Germany – 4 stages Protestants win 3 of 4 but Catholics win the war – The French fight the least and get the most • English Civil War (1660s) – Calvinists (P) wins; Catholic king gets head cut off – As the nation states and principalities grew in power, they began to fight for power and dominance in Europe – The Church and both Catholics and Protestants wanted to win Europe (and eventually the world) so they began to fight as well – Both groups often switch sides depending on their own selfish desires. Peace of Augsburg – 1555
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The Age of Religious and Civil Wars - The Age of Religious...

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