While the Guelfs were more pro-princely, rather than in favor of a strong, centralized government, and also anti-papal, the Ghibellines (or Hohenstaufens were the inverse. This century-long debate initiated in the 1100s effectively distracted the emperor from interfering with the growth of the Italian cities and strong merchant oligarchies. Henry Tudor, or Henry VII, 1485–1507, restored peace and order while consolidating his power over his subjects through avoiding any dependence on Parliament for revenue. In his policies, such as the creation of Star Chamber Courts, which were courts under his control and largely used to punish nobles for challenging his authority, Henry developed a tradition of absolutism that marked the Tudor dynasty. This was a return to monarchial control after the War of the Roses that marked a period of uncertainty and instability in England. France was less politically united than England, which was a disadvantage. Serious internal problems broke out in
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