Exam Two Review

Exam Two Review - Chapter 7 Zack Showalter L/O/G/O...

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L/O/G/O Chapter 7 Zack Showalter
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Reactions • Addition- molecules physically link • Condensation- molecules chemically link • Replacing hydrogen with a functional group is substituting
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• Copolymerization- polymer production process involving two different monomers • Blends/alloys physically mixing two or more polymers
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Types of polymers • Thermoplastic- flow at elevated temperatures • Thermosetting- does not melt after hardening
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Polymeric Materials
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Polymer Properties • Linear- bonds due to van der Waals forces • Branched- splits into two chains • Cross-linking- chemical bonds between polymer chains • Chain stiffening-large substituent groups increase stiffness
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Structural and Melting Characteristics • Amorphous-irregular atomic bonds – Tg glass transition temperature, change from rigid glass to soft rubber • Crystalline- regular and orderly atomic bond structure – Tm crystalline melting point, abrupt change in specific volume. Becomes amorphous liquid
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Additives • Used to improve properties and performance • Thermosetting additives added to resin • Thermoplastic additives are added during pelletizing process
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Additives
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Additives
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Blending and Alloying • Blending- multiple phase material – Can have different glass transition temperature • Alloying- single phase material
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L/O/G/O Chapter 8 Sections 1-5 By: Bryan Miller
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Chapter 8 Goals • To achieve an understanding of polymer chemistry and how chemical similarities create polymer and elastomer families. • To get a feeling for the relative differences between polymer families. • To learn a simplification of the field of plastics through knowledge of polymer families.
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8.1 Identification of Polymer Families • Polymers are identified by their chemical composition just as metal alloys are. • There are thousands of types of plastics and they can all be broken down into two categories: thermoplastic and thermosetting. • Thermoplastics are used much more than thermosetting.
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8.1 Identification of Polymer Families • Only a few plastics make up the majority of thermosetting and thermoplastic production. • About 80% of the production of thermoplastics comes from four polymers: polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and polyvinyl chloride. • Similarly the thermosettings are made with four main polymers: polyurethanes, phenolics, unsaturated polyester, and ureas.
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8.1 Identification of Polymer Families • Widely used plastics are referred to as commodity plastics. • The other plastics are known as engineering plastics. • Commodity plastics are not unsuitable for engineering applications, the main difference is cost. • Commodity plastics generally cost $1/lb while engineering plastics can cost from $6 to $600/lb
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8.2 Thermoplastic Commodity Plastic • Ethnic Polymers are a family of polymers that have a monomer structure of ethylene, a carbon-to-carbon double bond.
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Polyethylene • Polyethylene is made from petroleum or natural gas feedstocks. • Based on density there are four
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2010 for the course MET 34800 taught by Professor Flechinsine during the Spring '10 term at IUPUI.

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Exam Two Review - Chapter 7 Zack Showalter L/O/G/O...

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