CohenLecture

CohenLecture - Reverse Osmosis Desalination: UCLA Water...

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1 Yoram Cohen Reverse Osmosis Desalination: UCLA Water Warriors Water Technology Research (WaTeR) Center http://www.WaTeRCenter.ucla.edu Outline | Water issues and water shortage | New water sources Æ Desalination | Membrane Reverse Osmosis Desalination z Basic principles z History of desalination activities at UCLA | The cost of membrane desalination | Major brackish water desalination roadblocks | WaTeR Center Research on improving RO desalination
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2 Who Am I? | Name: Yoram Cohen | UCLA Faculty since 1981 | I started my engineering studies when the slide rule was an engineer’s most trusted tool | B.A.Sc & M.A. Sc (University of Toronto) z Research: atmosphere/water exchange of chemical contaminants z Minor: Fluid mechanics | Ph.D (University of Delaware) z Research: Polymers in Non-Uniform Stress Fields z Minors: Applied math and physical oceanography | Research Surface Engineering Water Technology Membranes Chemical sensors Environmental transport phenomena & environmental impact assessment Global Water Issues | It is estimated that about 1.5 billion people do not have access to Availability of freshwater sources is fixed Population is increasing Increasing industrial growth in adequate supply of safe water | About 10,000 people die every day and thousands more suffer from a range of debilitating illnesses due to water related diseases (This includes estimated annual child death of about 2.2 million) UN Report | Over 50% of the world’s major rivers are heavily polluted Increasing industrial growth in developed and developing countries Salinity of freshwater aquifers is rising By 2025 irrigation water needs will increase by about 20%. Urban growth will result in Urban growth will result in 40% increase in water demand to maintain current per capita water use “Over half of the World Population will face sever water shortages over the next 50 years” ( US Bureau of Reclamation) “Water promises to be to the 21st century what oil was to the 20th century: the precious commodity that determines the wealth of nations.” Fortune Magazine, May 15, 2000
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3 MY Water History | 1975-1977 : Contribution of the atmosphere to the chemistry of the Great Lakes z Exchange of pollutants between the Great Lakes and the Atmosphere | 1981- present: Contaminant Transport in the Aquatic Environment z Developed predictive models to track the distribution of pollutants in the environment z Environmental impact assessment (e.g., Ballona Creek) z Exposure analysis (SSFL, Simi Valley) | 1990-2005: Multiphase transport in soil | 1983-1994: Water Decontamination using Polymeric Sorption Resins | 1993-2003: Ceramic-supported Polymer membranes for Water Treatment z Membranes for water ultrafiltration (e.g., treatment of oil-in-water emulsions) z Pervaporation membranes for removal of organic contaminants from water | 1998-present: Water desalination | 2005: Established the UCLA Water Technology Research Center Water in the World Water Category % of Total Saline wate 97 2 Saline water 97.2 Ice caps and glaciers 2.1 Surface water and moisture 0.1 Saline waters contains
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CohenLecture - Reverse Osmosis Desalination: UCLA Water...

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