8. Phanerozoic

8. Phanerozoic - 1 Fossil Fuels Coal forms from remains of...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Fossil Fuels Coal forms from remains of land plants. Oil forms from remains of algae. Coal Formation U KY Need wet climate Swamp for burial (protect from O2) Some heating US Coal Deposits DOE Eastern = Carboniferous Western = Cretaceous, Tertiary Oil Deposits - Need: Source Rock - coastal basin rich in algal remains Maturation- Time and Temperature - need temp 160-300C- 1-10 million years- (bury to 5-10 km) Concentration Mechanism- Structural Trap (anticline, salt dome, fault) Structural Traps http://www.geomore.com/images/TRAPS.jpg Zagros Salt Dome 2 Mt. Sedom - Salt Dome Giant Oil Fields (Horn and Mann, 2007) Oil Age (Horn and Mann, 2007) Oil Age Histogram (Horn and Mann, 2007) Oil Depth Histogram (Horn and Mann, 2007) Discovery Time of Giant Fields (Horn and Mann, 2007) 3 Top Oil Producers M. King Hubbert Geophysicist at the Shell lab in Houston In 1956, he presented a paper with predictions for the peak year of US oil production Slide from J. Murray, UW Hubberts Peak From his 1956 paper Hubbert drew bell-shaped curves by hand, and added up barrels by counting squares For the larger estimate, he predicted a peak in 1970 Hubbert has been much criticized there is no consideration of supply and demand curves, prices, or policy, and new technologies Slide from J. Murray, UW US Crude-Oil Production Production is bell-shaped, like the curves Hubbert drew Average price after the peak was 2.6 times higher than before 16 Slide from J. Murray, UW Historical Projections for US Oil The power of Hubbert Linearization is that it uses past behavior of a system to indicate possible future performance rather than relying on the overoptimistic opinions of resource experts 17 Hubbert McKelvey Slide from J. Murray, UW The red box shows the average amount estimated to be discovered by the USGS each year between 1995 and 2025....
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8. Phanerozoic - 1 Fossil Fuels Coal forms from remains of...

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