Notes1[1] - Fall 2010 ECE 453 Lecture Notes #1 ECE 453...

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Fall 2010 ECE 453 Lecture Notes #1 For Purdue ECE 453 students ONLY NOT FOR CIRCULATION ECE 453 Lecture Notes#1 Excerpted from (LNE) Lessons from nanoelectronics: A new perspective on transport 1. The bottom-up approach 4 Introductory concepts 2. Why electrons flow 6 3. The elastic resistor 10 4. The new Ohm's law 14 Notes #1 5. Where is the resistance? 19 ***************************************************************** 6. Transverse modes 26 7. Drude formula xx 8. Kubo formula xx 9. How realistic is an elastic resistor? xx Semiclassical and quantum transport 10. Beyond low bias: The nanotransistor xx 11. Semiclassical Transport and the Scf method xx 12. Resistance and uncertainty xx 13. Quantum Transport: Schrodinger to NEGF xx 14. Resonant tunneling and Anderson localization xx 15. Coulomb blockade and Mott transition xx 16. Hall effect / QHE xx Beyond voltages and currents 17. Thermoelectricity xx 18. Heat flow xx 19. Spin flow xx 20. Spin transistor xx 21. Electronic Maxwell's demon xx 22. Physics in a grain of sand xx Supriyo Datta, datta@purdue.edu Purdue University World Scientific (2011), to be published
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Lessons from nanoelectronics: Copyright S. Datta datta@purdue.edu All Rights Reserved 2 “Everyone” has a computer these days, and each computer has more than a billion transistors, making transistors more numerous than anything else we could think of. Even the proverbial ants I am told have been vastly outnumbered. There are many types of transistors, but the most common one in use today is the Field Effect Transistor (FET), which is essentially a resistor consisting of a “channel” with two large contacts called the “source” and the “drain” (Fig. 0.1a). The resistance R = Voltage (V) / Current (I) can be switched by several orders of magnitude through the voltage V G applied to a third terminal called the “gate” (Fig.0.1b) typically from an “OFF” state of ~100 Megohms to an “ON” state of ~10 Kilohms. Actually, the microelectronics industry uses a complementary pair of transistors such that when one changes from 100M to 10K, the other changes from 10K to 100M. Together they form an inverter whose output is the "inverse" of the input: A low input voltage creates a high output voltage while a high input voltage creates a low output voltage as shown in Fig.0.2. A billion such switches switching at GHz speeds (that is, once every nanosecond) enable a computer to perform all the amazing feats that we have come to take for granted. Twenty years ago computers were far less powerful, because there were “only” a million of them, switching at a slower rate as well. Both the increasing number and the speed of transistors are consequences of their ever- shrinking size and it is this continuing miniaturization that has driven the industry from the first four-function calculators of the 1970’s to the modern laptops. For example, if each transistor takes up a space of say 10 μm x 10 μm, then we could fit 3000 x 3000 = 9 million of them into a chip of size 3cm x 3cm, since 3 cm /10 m 3000
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2010 for the course ECE 453 taught by Professor Supriyodatta during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Notes1[1] - Fall 2010 ECE 453 Lecture Notes #1 ECE 453...

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