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1 Nernst equation at equilibrium the tendency for ions to move down their concentration gradient will be exactly balanced by their tendency to move down their electrical gradient ions down concentration gradient ions down electrical gradient Water movement (review) Water moves from lower osmolarity to higher osmolarity (from hyposmotic solution to hyperosmotic solution) tonicity: •hypotonic = cell swells •isotonic = cell does not change volume •hypertonic = cell shrinks The membrane potential will be affected by changes in ion concentration. The membrane potential will affect voltage-gated channels.
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2 Figure 6-19Sensordetects whether regulated variable is within desired range Controllercompares regulated variable level (from sensor) to set point or desired range Effectorbrings regulated variable back