bsci test - Lecture 16 The Grasses o Make up 25 of the...

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Lecture 16 The Grasses o Make up 25% of the world’s vegetation o Found in almost all environments o Monocots-herbaceous, parallel leaf venation, flower parts in 3’s, scattered vascular bundles, fibrous roots o Members of Poaceae family Importance to humans o Include the grains, most important food group in the world o Edible grains of cultivated grasses are called cereals Major suppliers of calories for human nutrition (wheat, corn, rice) Advantage-dry seeds can be stored for years Flowers of grasses o Inflorescence is the structure containing all the flowers o Perfect (bisexual)-wheat and rice o Imperfect (unisexual)-corn o Flowers are adapted to win pollinations o Small, anthers are large and produce a lot of pollen, stigmas are double and large to catch pollen Grass Fruit o Simple, dry fruits that do not open at maturity o Caryopsis-seed coat is fused to the ovary wall (corn, wheat, rice) o Caryopsis dries until its 5-15% water o Dry grain can withstand extreme cold, heat o Grain parts include: Endosperm, embryo, bran Grain o Endosperm-large cells filled with starch grains; supplies food to germinating seedling o Embryo-young plant known as the germ: rich in oils, proteins, vitamins o Bran-consists of outer layers of old fruit wall, seed coat and aleurone layer. Aleurone layer secretes enzymes that digest the stored starch in the endosperm; aleurone is rich in protein and vitamins o Whole-grain foods are more nutritious Wheat (types) o
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