test3 - 1 Mudflats Epifauna: live on top of the substrate o...

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Mudflats Epifauna: live on top of the substrate o Crustacea: aquatic arthropods. Hard crust-like shell Fiddler crabs: one claw is much bigger than the other Hermit crabs: in saltiest part of bay. Live in snail shells after snail is eaten. Amphipods (marsh and beach fleas): almost invisible o Mollusks: shelled aquatic invertebrates Snails: rough tongue- scrape surface of mudflats to eat algae and bacteria. Lay eggs, hatch larva that floats in water, and then metamorphose into a snail Infauna: live underneath the substrate o Particles hold a lot of water o Anaerobic: smell bad- soil is grayish/black because there’s no oxygen o Clams: live in lower anaerobic part of substrate because they have cyphens that go above soil- bring it food and oxygen Usually biggest animals in mudflats Clues that clam is there: depression in mudflats or squirting water Squirt if they feel threatened o Burrowing anenomes: tentacles stick out of soil to catch food o Worms: ecologically most important. Provide food for shore birds, crabs, and fish. Constantly eating to move so they are constantly defecating- the waste is used by other organisms Ribbon worms: largest of all, 3 feet long. Eat clams by coming up underneath them Segmented bristle worms (polychaetes): called bristle worms because of their hairy appearance. Used as bait. Tube-building worms: build tubes with 2 ends sticking out of the water. Sometimes crabs live in these tubes 1
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Plankton Zooplankton: tiny, mostly microscopic animals. Float around. Eat phytoplankton. Migrate vertically within the water column everyday o Crustacea: aquatic arthropods Copepods: found throughout the world’s oceans and account for 80% of zooplankton. Food for every other animal except shellfish. Second law of thermodynamics: only utilize a certain amount of energy from your food. The calories you don’t use are turned to heat. Tertiary consumers: 10 calories. Secondary consumers: 100 calories. Primary consumers: 1,000 calories. Producers: 10,000 calories. Foodchain is only 10% efficient. Eggs naupolus copepodite copepod. Very complex life cycle. Amphipods: tiny crustacea similar to beach fleas. Shrimp: tiny crustacea. Planktonic. o Protozoa: unicellular or multicellular. Ciliates: most common type. Have cilia that bring food into the organism. Microscopic. Dydinium: eats other, smaller cilliates proboscis shoots out and grabs prey Meroplankton: only spend a little of their life as plankton. o Fish larva o Larva forms of crabs o Early life stage of almost every marine organism o Advantages of being planktonic: Can move things to potentially find new habitats o Disadvantages of being planktonic: Eaten easily 2
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Can get flushed out of the bay o Nobody is extremely dependent on one organism in the bay. Arthropods
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test3 - 1 Mudflats Epifauna: live on top of the substrate o...

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