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Unformatted text preview: What is knowledge? • Philosophy: looks at knowledge as justified true beliefs • Psychology: looks at knowledge as varying according to one’s theory of learning • Knowledge from different theoretical frameworks • Behaviorism: the goal of learning is reshaping human action which can be achieved by tap- ping into natural stimulus-response pairings that already exist to form a new pattern. Con- ditioning. Pavlov, Watson, Skinner. • Information-processing theory: explains how individuals take in information from the en- vironment and transform it into knowledge stored in the mind. • Cognitive constructivism: like IPT. Portrays knowledge as being individually formed and represents knowledge as an individual possession • Radical constructivism: takes individuality into account. • Social constructivism: society and culture as essential for learning but still allow for indi- vidual cognition. • Situated cognition: focus on physical and human resources in the environment plus a con- cern for the immediate context and process of knowing rather than the product of know- ledge. • Socioculturalism: cultural knowledge. • Axis • Falls in individually formed and in the mind • Cognitive constructivism closest to the axis • Information processing theory the same but further out • Radical constructivism furthest out (completely in the mind and completely individu- ally formed) • Falls in socially derived and in the environment • Social constructivism closest to the axis • Situated cognition the same but further out • Social cognition furthest out- we don’t have any knowledge in our own heads- only ex- ists because we agree on certain terms and concepts. Without social interaction we would have no knowledge • States of knowledge • Nature • Declarative: factual info; the knowledge related to labeling, describing, or explaining • Procedural: actions, routines, or procedures; concerned with demonstrating or perform- ing • Conditional: concerned with understanding when and how declarative and procedural knowledge should be applied • Modes of representation • Declarative: schemata; propositional networks, mental images • Procedural: productions; scripts, plans or frames • Conditional: secondary production rules or links to conceptual knowledge • Keys to learning • Declarative: accretion (assimilation); conceptual restructuring (accommodation) • Procedural: fluency and automaticity in performance • Conditional: flexibility in thinking; personalization of practiced routines • Assessment • Declarative: recognition or recall of items, focusing on specific factual content; most useful in gauging the scope of students’ knowledge of particular topics or domains • Procedural: performance-based assessments; demonstration activities; simulation tasks; focused on problem-solving or decision making • Conditional: problem solving; creative or novel tasks; self-evaluative measures • Knowledge begets knowledge: students who are cognitively or motivationally richer get...
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- Spring '08
- Educational Psychology, Memory processes