exam2 classnotes - What is knowledge Philosophy looks at...

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What is knowledge? Philosophy: looks at knowledge as justified true beliefs Psychology: looks at knowledge as varying according to one’s theory of learning Knowledge from different theoretical frameworks Behaviorism: the goal of learning is reshaping human action which can be achieved by tap- ping into natural stimulus-response pairings that already exist to form a new pattern. Con- ditioning. Pavlov, Watson, Skinner. Information-processing theory: explains how individuals take in information from the en- vironment and transform it into knowledge stored in the mind. Cognitive constructivism: like IPT. Portrays knowledge as being individually formed and represents knowledge as an individual possession Radical constructivism: takes individuality into account. Social constructivism: society and culture as essential for learning but still allow for indi- vidual cognition. Situated cognition: focus on physical and human resources in the environment plus a con- cern for the immediate context and process of knowing rather than the product of know- ledge. Socioculturalism: cultural knowledge. Axis Falls in individually formed and in the mind Cognitive constructivism closest to the axis Information processing theory the same but further out Radical constructivism furthest out (completely in the mind and completely individu- ally formed) Falls in socially derived and in the environment Social constructivism closest to the axis Situated cognition the same but further out Social cognition furthest out- we don’t have any knowledge in our own heads- only ex- ists because we agree on certain terms and concepts. Without social interaction we would have no knowledge States of knowledge Nature Declarative: factual info; the knowledge related to labeling, describing, or explaining Procedural: actions, routines, or procedures; concerned with demonstrating or perform- ing Conditional: concerned with understanding when and how declarative and procedural knowledge should be applied Modes of representation Declarative: schemata; propositional networks, mental images Procedural: productions; scripts, plans or frames Conditional: secondary production rules or links to conceptual knowledge Keys to learning Declarative: accretion (assimilation); conceptual restructuring (accommodation) Procedural: fluency and automaticity in performance
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Conditional: flexibility in thinking; personalization of practiced routines Assessment Declarative: recognition or recall of items, focusing on specific factual content; most useful in gauging the scope of students’ knowledge of particular topics or domains Procedural: performance-based assessments; demonstration activities; simulation tasks; focused on problem-solving or decision making Conditional: problem solving; creative or novel tasks; self-evaluative measures Knowledge begets knowledge: students who are cognitively or motivationally richer get richer by building on the resources they already possess.
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