quiz1 - Chapter 7: Learning Disabilities Heterogeneity:...

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Chapter 7: Learning Disabilities Heterogeneity: group of conditions- range from mild to severe Discrepance: identifiable gap between intelligence and achieveent Exclusionary: notes what those with learning disabilities are not RTI: schools have the option of using a student’s response to instructional interven- tions that have been determined to be effective through scientifically-based research. RTI model for instruction and service delivery Tier one intervention: comprehensive, well-designed curriculum serving most stu- dents (80-85%) who are making adequate academic progress. Tier two intervention: more intensive and supplemental intervention enhancing pro- gress. 10-15% of students. Tier three intervention: most specialized, intense instruction. 5% of students. 3 subtypes that often coexist with learning disabilities: Brain injury ADHD Emotional behavior disorders 4 causal areas Neurological damage Maturational delay of the neurological system Genetic factors Environmental factors The main purpose of assessment for learning disabilities is for education; for instruc- tional purposes, planning, and teaching the student Self-monitoring: occurs when an individual self-assesses whether or not a behavior has occurred and then self-records the results 3 types of self-monitoring: Self-Monitoring of Attention Self-Monitoring of Performance Self-Monitoring of Strategy Use Specific learning disability (SLD): a disorder of the basic psychological processes that impair an individual’s ability to understand or use language. Manifested in problems with listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, or mathematical calcula- tions. Includes: Perceptual disabilities Brain injuries Minimal brain dysfunction Dyslexia: a very severe type of learning disability that affects the abilities to read, sometime characterized by letter reversals such as reading a b for d. Developmental aphasia Considered and SLD if the student has problems with: Oral expression Listening comprehension Written expression
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Basic reading skill Reading comprehension Math calculation Math problem solving 50% of school-age disabilities are learning disabilities (2.8 million individuals) Assessment Norm-referenced assessment: assessment wherein a person’s performance is compared with the average of a larger group Criterion-referenced assessment: assessment that compares a person’s perform- ance to a specific established level (the criterion). This performance is not com- pared with that of other people. Curriculum-based assessment: assessment in which the objectives of a student’s
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quiz1 - Chapter 7: Learning Disabilities Heterogeneity:...

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