exam2 - Research in Social Psychology Hindsight bias The...

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Research in Social Psychology Hindsight bias. The tendency to think that we could have predicted something that we probably would not have been able to predict. Empirical . Based on the collection and systematic analysis of observable data. Variable. Any attribution that can assume different values – for instance among different people. Operational definition . The method that we use to measure a variable of interest. Self-report measures . Measures in which individuals are asked to respond to questions posed by an interviewer or on a questionnaire. Behavioral measures. Measured variables designed to directly measure an individual’s actions. Observational research. Research that involves making observations of behavior, and recording those observations in an objective manner. Research Hypothesis. A specific and falsifiable prediction regarding the relationship between or among two or more variables. Falsifiability . A characteristic of a research hypothesis indicating that the variables of interest can be adequately measured and that the expected relationship between the variables can be shown through research to be false. Correlational research. Research that involves the measurement of two or more relevant variables and an assessment of the relationship between or among the variables. Pearson Correlation Coefficient . A statistic used to assess the strength and the size of the relationship between two variables. Common-causing variable. In a correlational design, a variable that is not part of the research hypothesis but which causes the variables of interest to be correlated, thus producing a correlation between them. Experimental research. Research that includes the manipulation of a given situation or experience for two or more groups of individuals who are initially created to be equivalent, followed by a measurement of the effect of that experience. Independent variable. In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated by the researcher.
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Dependent variable . In an experiment, the variable that is assumed to be caused by the independent variable, and which is measured by the researcher. Random assignment to conditions . The most common method of creating equivalence among the experimental conditions before the experiment begins. Internal validity . The extent to which changes in the dependent variable in an experiment can confidently be attributed to changes in the independent variable. Field experiments . Experimental research that is conducted in natural environment such as a school or a factory. Cover story – a false or misleading statement by the experimenter about what is being studied that is used to reduce the possibility of demand characteristics.
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