first exam

first exam - Feminism: the principle that women should be...

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Feminism: the principle that women should be highly regarded as human beings. It is a belied system in which women’s experiences and ideas are valued; feminists emphasize that women and men should be socially, economically, and legally equal. Males can be feminists. o Liberal feminism: focuses on the goal of gender equality, giving women and men the same rights and opportunities. Argue for passing laws that guarantee equal rights. Believe that gender differences are relatively small, and they would be even smaller if women had the same opportunities as men. o Cultural feminism: emphasizes the positive qualities that are presumed to be stronger in women than in en, like nurturing and caretaking. Focuses on gender differences that value women rather than on the gender similarities of liberal feminism. Argue that society should be restructured to emphasize cooperation rather than aggression. o Radical feminism: argues that the basic cause of women’s oppression lies deep in the entire sex and gender system rather that in some superficial laws and policies. Emphasize that sexism permeates our society. Argue that our society needs to dramatically change its policies on sexuality and on violence against women. o Women-of-color feminism: points out that the other three types of feminist overemphasize gender while ignoring other human dimensions like ethnicity or social class. Believe that a genuinely feminist approach cannot be accomplished with a few minor adjustments to liberal, cultural, or radical feminism. Sex: biological category of males and females. Biology. Hormones. Culture/ environment has no effect on sex. Gender: social category of male or female. A label or role created by a culture. Constructed by society to define what’s expected from the sexes. Behaviors, roles, expectations. Sex differences: things that are biologically determined in our genes. Gender differences: differences that come from social pressures or expectations. Similarities perspective: believe that men and women are generally similar in their intellectual and social skills. These psychologists argue that social forces may create some temporary differences. By reducing gender roles and increasing equal rights laws, gender similarities will increase further. Differences perspective: men and women are generally different in their intellectual and social skills. Social constructivism: individuals and cultures construct or invent their own versions of reality, based on prior experiences, social interactions, and beliefs. Argues that we can never objectively discover reality because our observations will always be influenced by our beliefs.
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Essentialism (innateness): argues that gender is a basic, unchangeable characteristic that resides within an individual. All women share the same psychological characteristics. Which are very different from the psychological characteristics that all men share. Gender-typing: pressures that lead to the development of a gender identity.
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first exam - Feminism: the principle that women should be...

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