test2 - EXAM 2 Gender development Gender constancy...

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EXAM 2: Gender development Gender constancy: Influenced by Piaget’s cognitive development theory; introduced by Kohlberg. The idea that the development of sex roles depends in large part on a child's understanding that gender remains constant throughout a person's lifetime. Develops around 4 years old. Two parts: o Gender stability: if you’re a female, it’s the knowledge that you’ll still be female when you get older. o Gender consistency: even if a boy puts on a dress, he knows he’s still a boy. Gender identity: part of your overall identity, sense of self as male or female. Androgyny: being high in both male and female traits. Gender aschematic children: children that do not categorize individuals based on gender. Gender intensification: when males show an increase in masculine traits and females show an increase in feminine traits/ behavior. This occurs around adolescence, when people start to become interested in attracting the opposite sex. Gender segregation: the separation of sexes as playmates- girls showing a preference for female playmates and boys showing a preference for male playmates. This causes boys and girls to develop different play styles and friendships and to begin to identify with their own gender. When boys and girls start to come together at around 7 th grade, they don’t know how to interact. Gender identity disorder: a strong psychological identity with the opposite sex. A desire to be the opposite sex. Displays opposite sex-type behavior. o Cannot be due to inter sexuality (anything related to genitals- ex: doctor accidentally cut penis off) and must cause considerable distress. o Age of onset: between 2 and 4 years old o Must meet 4 out of 5 criteria: Cross-sex behavior Cross-sex toy/ activity preferences Cross-sex peer affiliation
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Cross-dressing A stated desire to be the opposite sex or high levels of stress associated with own sex. Tomboys: starts at about age 6, and ends at about age 12. Girls who exhibit a preference for sports or active play, “boy” toys, and wanting to wear pants. Much more socially acceptable now. Sissy boys: boys who Theories of gender development Biological theories – biological components such as the sex organs. The fetus hormones encourage further sex differentiation including the development of the external genitals Social learning theory: children learn gender-related behaviors from other people. Children learn gender related behaviors based on positive and negative responses from people. It proposes two major mechanism for explaining how girls become effeminate and boys become masculine: o Children are rewarded for “gender-appropriate” behavior and punished for “gender-inappropriate” behavior.
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