test2 - Health Fight-or-flight response physiological...

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Health Fight-or-flight response: physiological responses that have developed through evolu- tion to prepare the body to fight a threat or to flee from it. Results from activation of the: Autonomic nervous system: hypothalamus activates sympathetic part first- affects smooth muscle tissue and organs. Ex: increases heart rate Adrenal-cortical system: activated by the hypothalamus, eventually stimulates hor- mones like cortisol (amount of cortisol in blood or urine is often used to measure stress) General adaptation syndrome: Hans Selye. All organisms show some physiological changes in response to stress. 3 phases: Alarm: body mobilizes to confront a threat. Sympathetic nervous system stimu- lated. Resistance: organisms makes efforts to cope with the threat- fight or flight Exhaustion: occurs if the organism is unable to fight or flee from the threat and de- pletes physiological resources while trying to do so Health psychology: investigates the effects of stress and other psychological factors on physical illness. 3 models of how psychological factors affect physical disease: Direct effects model: psychological factors directly cause changes in the physiology of the body which in turn cause or exacerbate disease Interactive model: psychological factors must interact with a preexisting biological vulnerability to a disease in order for a person to develop that disease Indirect effects model: physiological factors affect disease largely by influencing whether people engage in health-promoting behaviors Coronary heart disease (CHD): occurs when the blood vessels that supply the heart muscles are narrowed or closed by the gradual buildup of plaque- blocks flow of oxygen and nutrients. Causes pain (angina pectoris) across chest and arm. Leading cause of death in the u.s.- 20% of all deaths Hypertension: high blood pressure. The blood supply through the vessels is excess- ive so pressure is put on the vessel walls. 50 million people in the u.s. have it Immune system: protects the body from disease-causing microorganisms. Stress im- pairs its functioning and can lead to higher rates of infectious disease Lymphocytes: cells of the immune system that attack viruses Sleep deprivation is very psychologically detrimental People who sleep fewer than 6 hours per night have a 70% higher mortality rate Sleep disorders: divided into categories- disorders related to another mental disorder, disorders due to a general medical condition, substance-induced sleep disorders, and primary sleep disorders Primary sleep disorders: Dyssomnias: abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep Insomnia: difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep or sleep that chronically does not restore energy and alertness. Can be treated with drugs or through therapies like: Stimulus-control therapy: involves a set of instructions designed to diminish behaviors that might interfere with sleep and to regulate sleep-wake sched- ules
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1. Go to bed only when tired 2.
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