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PHYS105 FINAL REVIEW CAFE Oil embargos, gasoline shortages   energy conservation CAFE = corporate automotive fuel efficiency o Goal to double fuel efficiency in ten years o Sets average MPG for all cars sold o CAFÉ limit unchanged from 1987-2007 o Car makers- rather than higher MPG, bigger cars o When gov’t stopped asking industries to make cars with increased  MPG, they stopped. o CAFÉ IS GOOD: consumers undervalue increases in fuel  efficiency, relying on foreign sources is a threat, reduce  greenhouse gases Gas taxes = alternative o Generate revenue  can be used for society projects o Customers buy more fuel efficient vehicles o Encourage retirement of older vehicles GREENHOUSE EFFECT Greenhouse gases trap infrared radiation in earth’s atmosphere and  warms it.,greenhouse effect is necessary Black body radiation o Black body= object that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation o Black body radiation = light emitted by black body o Black body does not radiate at every wavelength, temp. GLOBAL WARMING Milankovitch cycles  o Cyclical changes in earth’s eccentricity, axis tilt and precession  caused Ice Age Carbon dioxide levels have been rising dramatically due to the use of  fossil fuels, warm periods correlated with high levels of CO 2 o Orbital effects start warming trend, warming increases carbon  dioxide, increased carbon dioxide accelerates warming = positive  feedback IPCC says global warming due to human activities “against” human-caused global warming
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o global climate coalition o george c. marshall institute – claimed ozone not real/issue o dick cheney- global warming exists, due to natural cycles climate science can be messy : can’t run experiments, local variations vs.  global variations, predictions are not better than models, diff. models = 
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course PHYS 305 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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