ccjs final exam studyguide

ccjs final exam studyguide - Enlightenment a movement...

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Enlightenment: a movement during the eighteenth century in England and France in which concepts of liberalism, rationalism, equality, and individualism dominated social and political thinking. The enlightenment ideas during the 18 th century caused physical punishment to decrease. Penal systems emerged emphasizing fitting the punishment to the offender the new goal was to set the offender on the right path rather than inflict pain on the offender’s body. John Howard sheriff of Bedfordshire England, wrote a book called The State of Prisons in England and Wales which described the horrible conditions he observed in the prisons he visited. Public response to the book resulted in Parliament’s passing of the Penitentiary Act of 1779 this act called for the creation of a house of hard labor where offenders would be imprisoned for up to two years. The institution would be based on 4 principles: - secure and sanitary building - inspection to ensure that offenders followed the rules - abolition of the fees charged offenders for their foods - a reformatory regime The penitentiary served to punish and to reform. Howard’s idea of the penitentiary was not implemented in England until 1842. England was slow to act, but the United States applied Howard’s ideas more quickly. Pennsylvania system Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the miseries of Public Prisons was a group inspired by Howard’s ideas. They argued that criminals could best be reformed if they were placed in penitentiaries which would isolate them from one another and from society so that they could consider their crimes, repent, and reform. Walnut Street jail penitentiary created for the solidarity and confinement of hardened and atrocious offenders. Communication of any kind was not allowed. Separate confinement a penitentiary system, developed in Pennsylvania, in which each inmate was held on isolation from other inmates. All activities, including craft work, took place in the cells. It was based on 5 principles:
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- prisoners would not be treated vengefully but should be convinced that through hard and selective forms of suffering they could change their lives. - Solitary confinement would be prevent further corruption inside prison - In isolation, offenders would reflect on their transgressions and repent - Solitary confinement would be punishment because humans are by nature social animals - Solitary confinement would be economical because prisoners would not need a long time to repent, and so fewer keepers would be needed and the cost of clothing would be lower. Eastern Penitentiary near Philadelphia investigations were held outside, and reports detailed the extent to which the goal of separate confinement was not fully observed, physical punishments were used to maintain discipline, and prisoners suffered mental breakdowns from isolation.
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