Final exam study guide Spring 10

Final exam study guide Spring 10 - PSYC 100 Final Exam...

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PSYC 100 Final Exam Study Guide Scientific Method Variables – o what is an independent variable? The thing that is manipulated in the experiment o Dependent variable? Measurement of what the subject does in the experiment o Extraneous variable? Other variables that can impact the experiment/dependent variable that are NOT the independent variable o How can extraneous variables be controlled? They are controlled in such a way that they don’t have any impact on the experiment at all – through randomization Randomizing the stimulus materials in an experiment, randomizing the subjects into conditions in the experiment, using a with-in subject design What is a theory? o Assuming what will result like a hypothesis What is a prediction? o Statement about what we expect the subjects to do in this experiment if the theory is correct (it is about the dependent variable) What is empiricism? o Testing through experience Limitations of experimental research o Some areas of the human mind/behavior may be too complex to manipulate o Experiments in lab settings might not translate to the real world o May be unethical to manipulate some variables Correlational research o Positive vs. negative correlations Positive – one changes in one direction and the other does the same as A goes up B goes up Negative – happens when one variable moves in one direction and the other moves in the opposite direction; when A goes up, B goes down o Major limitation of correlational research – cannot tell us anything about causality What is preferred correlational or experimental? o Experimental is preferred because it allows us to draw causal conclusions Experimental research is more powerful – extraneous variables are directly controlled by the experimenter in experimental design, justifies causal conclusion can be drawn, and independent variables are directly manipulated It is preferred over correlation because experimental research permits more exact measurements of a subject’s responses than correlational Subject designs o Between subject design – the tasks are assigned to different groups (one group does one) o Within – the task is assigned to more than one group– it is all mixed up within both groups Neuropsychology/Biopsychology Parts of a neuron and their functions o Axons: extend from the neuron, coated with a myelin sheath which is a fatty coating to insulate the neuron and allow faster transmission
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o Synapse – space between axon and neuron o Dendrites o Cell body o Cell membrane Slight charge, polarized when at rest Negative inside the cell Resting potential Very tiny charge When does a neuron react in an “all or none” manner vs. a “graded” manner?
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