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Unformatted text preview: Agriculture and Water Sarah Lothrop ENVR189H Key Terms Agriculture-the science, art, or occupation concerned with the cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming. livestock; Irrigation-the artificial application of water to land to assist in the the production of crops. production Runoff-something that drains or flows off, as rain that flows off from something the land in streams the Hydroponic-a method of gardening without soil Cover Crops-Cultivation of a second type of crop primarily to -Cultivation improve the production system for a primary crop; examples include grasses or legumes maintained in orchards or vineyards and legume or other crops grown during the winter season to improve soil condition. soil Water Use in the US Thermoelectric generation 47% Irrigation 34% (Agriculture) Irrigation Public supply 9% Industrial 6% Mining 1% Livestock 1% Domestic 1% Commercial uses 1% Commercial Water Use in the US, cont’d American farmers irrigate ~15 percent of farmlands to American grow crops Crops grown on irrigated lands are valued at nearly $70 Crops billion a year—about 40 percent of the total value of all crops sold. crops Livestock also need to be “watered”, but they require Livestock much less water than crops do much Both livestock and crops can affect water quality Water Quality Issues Many people question whether or not agriculture is one of the main Many causes of water quality degradation. causes Agricultural operations contribute to water quality issues through the Agricultural release of numerous materials into water release Sediments, pesticides, animal manures, fertilizers, veterinary Sediments, medicine, and heavy metals medicine, Major common chemicals found alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor These pollutants reach surface and groundwater through runoff These are called “non-point” sources of pollution What Causes This? Animal feedlots Cultivation Pastures Dairy Farming Manure spread as fertilizer Irrigation return flows carry salts, nutrients and pesticides Drainage carries nitrogen to surface waters Drainage Pesticides and IPM Insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are used to kill Insecticides, agricultural pests agricultural Can enter and contaminate water through application, Can runoff, or atmospheric deposition. Poison fish and wildlife, contaminate food sources, destroy Poison animal habitat animal Solution- Farmers need to use Integrated Pest Management Solution(IPM) techniques (IPM) Based on specific soils, climate, pest history, and crop Based conditions conditions Encourages natural barriers, limits pesticide use, manages Encourages application application epa.gov epa.gov Monitoring Water Quality An autosampler is set up to collect water samples An during storms and to test them for pesticides during Water Quantity--A Global Issue With the constant population increase, food With requirements necessitate the expansion of irrigation requirements This causes a steady increase in the use of fertilizers This and pesticides worldwide that have the possibility of coming into contact with the local water supply coming Water Quantity, cont’d Globally, many renewable water supplies have already Globally, been exceeded, resulting in falling groundwater levels been and greatly reduced river flow. and The depletion of water in some areas is tragic In some areas today the Yellow River of China is In sometimes completely drained sometimes Recently, the Colorado River seldom reaches the Gulf of Recently, California Irrigated agriculture is one of the main causes of these Irrigated problems problems Types of Irrigation Ditch Terraced Drip (best to solve water quality issues) Sprinkle Rotary Center Pivot By hand Ditch Terrace Drip Sprinkler Rotary Center Pivot Irrigation, cont’d To maximize efficiency and reduce water loss, different crops To should be irrigated using different methods (according to how much water each crop needs) much Time of day is important in irrigation, since things like wind, Time temperature, and sunlight play big roles in evaporation temperature, Best time is before 9 a.m. and after 9 p.m. Some crops can survive dry periods without any irrigation, so Some sometimes it isn’t necessary sometimes Though tedious and time consuming, watering plants by hand Though is sometimes the best method since runoff can be monitored and controlled and Solutions Although more expensive, hydroponic production of agriculture is an Although alternative that would keep water quantity and quality up Plants are grown in chemical nutrient solutions and are supported Plants by materials like peat moss and sand by Uses only 5% of water that would be needed for the same amount Uses of crops on land of Of over 50,000 acres in hydroponic production around the world, Of about 1200 of those are in the US (but most of these crops are then about sold locally) sold Hundreds of thousands of pounds of hydroponic produce are imported daily Solutions, cont’d Reduce amount of fertilizers, manure and sewage Reduce sludge applied to crops sludge Sow autumn crops early Sow cover crops in winter to avoid bare ground Dispose farm waste carefully Dispose Farmers can measure actual crop needs and only apply Farmers the amount of water required the Convert outdated irrigation systems to higher efficiency Convert equipment equipment Sources http://dictionary.reference.com http://www.fao.org/docrep/W2598E/w2598e00.htm#Contents http://www.fao.org/docrep/W2598E/w2598e00.htm#Contents http://www.naturegrid.org.uk/rivers/gt%20stour%20case%20study-pages/plln-frm.html www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/glossary.html http://www.aquaponics.com http://www.aquaponics.com attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/ghwebRL.html m/InfoHydroponics.htm m/InfoHydroponics.htm www.thefarm.org/charities/i4at/surv/hydro.htm www.nal.usda.gov/wqic/ http://www.tradeobservatory.org/search.cfm http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/publicat/wqwm/ag508_6.html http://toxics.usgs.gov/topics/agchemicals.html http://ia.water.usgs.gov/nawqa/factsheets/fs-116-97.html http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/Ag_Runoff_Fact_Sheet.pdf Picture Sources http://www.paversearch.com/irrigation-systems-types.htm http://www.iptv.org/exploreMore/water/uses/use_agriculture.cfm http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/A-Bi/Agriculture-and-Water.html http://www.lawncare.net/wp-content/uploads/stay-green-with-manurefertilizer-300x200.jpg fertilizer-300x200.jpg http://www.as-projects.com/images/dairy_2__600_x_450__k20j.jpg http://www.as-projects.com/images/dairy_2__600_x_450__k20j.jpg http://www.livecorp.com.au/Images/Middle%20East/Fresh%20cool%20and %20clean%20water%20at%20a%20well-shaded%20feedlot%20in %20Oman.jpg %20Oman.jpg http://scipeeps.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/water-pollution.jpg http://www.parrot664.tripod.com/ id2.html http://www.parrot664.tripod.com/ http://www.treehugger.com/water-withdrawal-map-usa2.png The University of Nebraska-Lincoln is an equal The opportunity educator and employer with a comprehensive plan for diversity. ...
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- Fall '09