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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules After H2O most...

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Chapter 3 Biological Molecules After H2O, most molecules contain carbon o Organ molecules contain C o C atoms are the most versatile, they are the building blocks of molecules Valence = 4 so they can bind to 2, 3, 4 other atoms o Functional groups are attached small characteristic groups of atoms which are frequently bonded to the C skeleton of organic molecules form dictates function have specific chemical and physical properties are regions of organic molecule which are frequently chemically reactive behave consistently from one organic molecule to another can determine the chemical properties of the organic molecule where located (1) Hydroxyl = functional group of H atom + O atom which is bonded to C atom (carbon skeleton) o is polar group o involved in condensation (dehydration) and hydrolysis (H2O is added to break apart molecule) reaction ? What molecule removed during dehydration synthesis o H2O (2) Carbonyl o polar functional group o hydrophilic (extremely) o makes parts of molecule water soluble (3) Carboxyl o can donate a proton = acidic o involved in peptide bonds between amino acids string of amino acids = protein o proteins = most important DNA-MRA-Proteins (key to life) (4) Amino o weak base = accepts protons o involved in peptide bonds between amino acids carboxyl – protein strand - amino (5) Sulfhydryl o forms disulfide bonds with in and between proteins o found in numerous proteins in biological systems TEST ? A peptide bond forms between which 2 groups? o Carboxyl and amino (6) Phosphate H2PO4 o dissociated form of phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
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o acts as an acid (donates protons) o links nucleotides together to form nucleic acids (DNA) o important in cellular energy storage and energy transfer Synthesizing organic molecule: modular approach o Biological molecule put together in sub-units, or modules, called monomer o Simple combine to form complex o Monomer into polymer o The reaction that forms a polymer from monomers is a dehydration synthesis (or condensation reaction) Reaction in which the covalent linkage of the monomers is
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