L10Oct07 - Traverse Definition A traverse is a series of...

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CIVL1009 Survey (2010-2011 Semester 1) Chapter 5 Traverse 1 Chapter 5 Traverse CIVL1009 Survey (2010-2011 Semester 1) Chapter 5 Traverse 2 Traverse Definition A traverse is a series of established stations tied together by angle and distance A traverse is usually a control survey To locate the detail for the preparation of plans To locate engineering works The angles are measured using theodolites or total stations, while the distances can be measured using EDMs CIVL1009 Survey (2010-2011 Semester 1) Chapter 5 Traverse 3 Traverse Types of traverses Open traverse Closed traverse Known Data •Positions of A and B Measured Data •Length of traverse sides •Angles between traverse sides CIVL1009 Survey (2010-2011 Semester 1) Chapter 5 Traverse 4 Traverse Open traverse A series of measured straight lines and angles that do not geometrically close Lack of geometric closure means that there is no geometric verification possible with respect to the actual positioning of the traverse stations To provide for field verification, refined measuring technique, e.g. measuring the distances twice, are required Control Station Traverse Station
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CIVL1009 Survey (2010-2011 Semester 1) Chapter 5 Traverse 5 Traverse Closed traverse A closed traverse is one that either (i) begins and ends at the same point (known as a loop traverse), or one that (ii) begins and ends at points whose positions have been previously determined Angles can be closed geometrically, and the position closure can be determined mathematically For a loop traverse, the loop distances and angles can be obtained by proceeding consecutively around the loop in a clockwise or anticlockwise manner Control Station Traverse Station CIVL1009 Survey (2010-2011 Semester 1) Chapter 5 Traverse 6 Horizontal angle Measurement of horizontal angles Interior angles Deflection angles CIVL1009 Survey (2010-2011 Semester 1) Chapter 5 Traverse 7 Horizontal angle Balancing angles Geometric sum of the interior angles in an n-sided polygon Interior Angles = ( n – 2) x 180 o , where n is the number of interior angles When all the interior angles of a closed traverse are summed, they may or may not be equal to the sum required for geometric closure Acceptable error of angular closure Acceptable error = n x a , where a depends on the precision of instrument and specification of that particular traverse practice CIVL1009 Survey (2010-2011 Semester 1) Chapter 5 Traverse 8 Horizontal angle Balancing angles (cont’d) Example: When n = 5 and a = 3” Interior Angles = ( n – 2) x 180 o = (5 -2 )x 180 o = 540 o Acceptable error = n x a = 5 x 3” < 7” If the angular error is greater than the acceptable error of angular closure, the fieldwork will have to be repeated If the angular error is small, the field angles must be adjusted so that their sum equals the correct geometric total The angles can be balanced by distributing the angular error evenly to each angle, given that all angles were measured with the same precision
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