CIVL3007-EIA-2010-4-WW Sources-Flowrate-Chracteristics-Impacts-2

CIVL3007-EIA-2010-4-WW Sources-Flowrate-Chracteristics-Impacts-2

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1 Technical Assessment of Water Pollution and Its Control • Sources, flow rates, and characteristics of wastewater • Environmental impact of wastewater • Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment • Sludge treatment and disposal • Effluent disposal into natural waters and its modelling Technical Memorandum (Water part, Annex 6 and 14) CIVL3007-2010 Dr. Zhang T
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2 Wastewater Sources, flow rates and characteristics
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3 Water Usage -1 Natural Æ hydrological cycle (rainfall, evaporation, runoff) 10% runoff is withdrawn for human use. Man-controlled/influenced Æ for different uses due to man's activities municipal : drinking and cooking food preparation dish washing toilet flushing bath/shower/hand washing laundry other industrial: washing/cleaning cooling/heating : thermal power plants steam production manufacture (beer, beverage) chemical reaction agricultural: irrigation livestock
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4 Water Usage -2 • Distributed unevenly spatially and temporally. – Water distribution does not match well with the distribution of people on the Earth. Asia P60%-W36%, South America P5%-W25%. North Africa 7% of African average. – Dependence on imported surface water: Egypt (Nile River from Ethiopia), Singapore, Hong Kong . • Consumptive use and non-consumptive use. – Withdrawal = consumption + return – Agriculture : 41% = 23% + 18% evapotranspiration, infiltration – Power plant : 39% = 1% + 38% – Municipal: 13% = 3% + 10% • Average per-capita household water use : – USA 400 L/d, HK 370 L/d, Taiwan 245 L/d, China 250 L/d. – 1/3 for toilet flushing, 1/3 for bathing, 1/3 for others.
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5 Quality of Water Wate r = appr. 96.5-99.9% H 2 O + 0.1-3.5% other constituents (determine quality) Changes in quality of water natural: passing through atmosphere and lithosphere man-induced: passing through anthroposphere (use for man's activities) Problem of quality: water suitable for intended use water unsuitable for intended use Æ pollution Monitoring and prediction: – Monitoring of water quality by parameter measurement. – Prediction of water quality by water quality modelling
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6 Wastewater Sources • Domestic: – residential = sewage – commercial, e.g. restaurants, department stores – institutional, e.g. schools, universities, hospitals • Industrial: varying depending on the type of industries – Plating wastewater – Food processing wastewater • Agricultural: – Livestock: high organic, N and P – Irrigation: pesticide, N and P
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7 Flow Rates of Wastewater -1 • Importance design of collection system (diameter of sewers), capacity of treatment works, impact evaluation. • Flow rates estimation – estimates from water supply, i.e. water consumed – direct measurements of sewage/wastewater flow – estimates from emission factors: flow factors per person or other units for various sources, e.g.
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course CIVL 2007 taught by Professor Profchai during the Spring '10 term at HKU.

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CIVL3007-EIA-2010-4-WW Sources-Flowrate-Chracteristics-Impacts-2

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