LSD - Introduction A structure should be Philosophy of...

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Philosophy of Design Introduction A structure should be – Safe – Economical to build – Maintainable – Aesthetically pleasing These are what structural engineers aim at in designing a structure Introduction The engineering design process are often divided into 2 stages 1. Feasibility study and/or conceptual design involving a comparison of the alternative forms of structure and selection of the most suitable one 2. Detailed design of the chosen structural form Introduction The success of conceptual design relies on engineering judgement and instinct, both of which are the result of many years of experience The detailed design is more dependent on a thorough understanding of codes of practice for structural design Basis of design Basis of design To ensure that stresses due to loading at all critical points in a structure have a very low chance of exceeding the strength of materials used at these critical points Example of critical point – Mid-span section (max. bending) – Supports of a beam (max. shear; min. bending)
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Factors affecting the maximum material stresses at critical points – Loading varies according to occupancy and environmental conditions – Imperfect design process Factors affecting the material strengths at critical points – Variability of manufacturing condition Probability density function Load effect, Q Strength or resistance, R Q R Q n R n Q , R Figure 1.
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