Steel - Scope Theory and Design of Structures I Design of...

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Theory and Design of Structures I Design of simple steel members Scope Limit state design concepts; material strength and loading Elastic design; plastic design and limit state design Design of steel beams restrained laterally; design for bending and shear References 1. BS 5950-1:2000, Structural use of steelwork in building – Part 1: Code of practice for design – Rolled and welded sections, 2000. 2. Code of practice for the structural use of steel 2005, Buildings Department, Hong Kong, 2005. 3. Design of structural elements: concrete, steelwork, masonry and timber design to British standards and Eurocodes, 2nd ed., C. Arya, Spon Press, London, 2003. 4. Limit states design of structural steelwork, D.A. Nethercot, 2nd ed., 1991. 5. Structural Steelwork: Design to Limit State Theory, T.J. MacGinley and T.C. Ang, 1987. Structural elements Beams and girders – members carrying lateral loads in bending and shear • Ties – members carrying axial loads in tension Struts, columns/stanchions – members carrying axial compression primarily, some bending and shear as well • Purlins – beam members carrying roof sheeting Trusses and lattice girders – framed members that comprise struts and ties carrying lateral loads Sheeting rails – beam members supporting wall cladding • Bracing – diagonal struts and ties that form vertical & horizontal trusses with other members to resist wind loads and stabilize the structure Structural elements Structural elements
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Structural elements Design methods Elastic Design – traditional method – based on the elastic properties of steel – permissible stresses are not exceeded Plastic theory – takes into account of behaviour beyond the yield point Limit state design – takes into account of all conditions that can make the structure unfit for use Properties of structural steel Properties of structural steel Composed of about 98% of iron alloying with mainly carbon, silicon and manganese Steel has different grading e.g. S235, S275, S355 and S460 of the BS EN standards – Grade S460 is the strongest but S275 is the most commonly used in structural application Important properties are strength, ductility, impact resistance and weldability Properties of structural steel Figure 1(a) Stress-strain curves for structural steels. Strain Thickness 16 mm 0 Stress (N/mm 2 ) Grade S460 0.1 460 0.2 0.3 0.4 Grade S355 Grade S275 355 275 Properties of structural steel Figure 1(b) Idealized stress- strain curve for design. 0.1 0.2 0 Plastic Range Yield Stress Elastic Range Strain Stress Yield point
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Design Considerations Design Considerations • Fatigue Brittle fracture Fire protection Corrosion protection Design Considerations • Fatigue occurs when subjected to fluctuating loads, e.g. bridges, crane girders, offshore structures, etc.
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