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3AL Lecture 8 - Structure Determination NMR Spectroscopy...

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Structure Determination X-Ray Crystallography NMR Spectroscopy Mass Spectrometry
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Spectroscopy Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation: Something Changes from a Lower Energy State to a Higher Energy State Δ E = h
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Energy ( Δ E = h ) > 300 (kcal) 300 – 40 40 – 2 2 – 0.1 10 -4 X-rays Electronic transitions of core electrons in atoms UV Vis. Electronic transitions of valence electrons Near IR Far IR Micro- waves Vibrational transitions Rotational transitions Radio- waves 10 nm 50 400 800 20 m 1mm 100mm Electromagnetic Spectrum 10 -6 1m
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Nuclear (spins) Resonating (when electromagnetic radiation is applied) in a Magnetic Field 1 H 13 C 19 F 31 P Δ E = h B o
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Nuclear Spin Nuclei with a spin equal to zero are NMR inactive Nuclei with a spin not equal to zero are NMR active 1 H, 13 C, 15 N, 19 F, 31 P all have a spin equal to 1/2
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Spinning Nuclei Spinning Nuclei Create a Small Magnetic Field
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Spin( ½ ) Nuclei in an External Magnetic Field Δ E
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E B o Δ E B o and Spin States B
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