Chap_2 - Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Life An...

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Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Life
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An understanding of chemistry is important because the interaction between atoms is one of the lowest levels of biological organization.
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Which is the smallest unit of organization? Cell Atom Organelle Organ
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Which is the smallest unit of organization? Cell Atom Organelle Organ
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The basic unit of all forms of matter is the atom ---atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains the physical and chemical properties of the element.
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Atoms are made up of subatomic particles. The 3 most stable subatomic particles are: neutrons , protons , and electrons (see fig 2.1)
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Helium (He) n n Hydrogen (H) electron shell nucleus e - p + p + p + e - e - Fig. 2.1
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Protons are positively charged particles found at the core, or nucleus, of the atom Neutrons are uncharged particles found at the core, or nucleus, of the atom. Electrons are light, negatively charged particles that orbit around the nucleus in electron shells
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A collection of atoms of the same type form an element ---an element is a substance that can’t be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions. (see table 2-1)
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Helium (He) n n e - p + p + e - The atomic weight of an element is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
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The atoms of a particular element may have different numbers of neutrons This difference results in isotopes ---Isotopes are atoms of the same element which have different atomic weights
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The Electron Orbitals ---Electron orbitals are the three- dimensional space around the nucleus of an atom where an electron will be found 90% of the time.
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---The electron orbitals of an atom are arranged in electron shells based on their energy level . Fig. 2.2
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The chemical behavior of an atom is determined by the number of electrons in the outermost electron shell. An atom with an incomplete (partially full) electron shell is reactive whereas an atom with a full electron shell is inert , or not chemically active.
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An inert element: Forms covalent bonds with itself. Has a full outer electron shell. Has an empty outer electron shell. Does not react with other elements because it is unstable.
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An inert element: Forms covalent bonds with itself. Has a full outer electron shell. Has an empty outer electron shell. Does not react with other elements because it is unstable.
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The Hindenburg-1937
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Na 17 p + 11 p + 11 n Chlorine atom (neutral) 18 n Cl If an atom has a vacancy in the outer electron shell, it will try to fill that vacancy or get rid of the “extra” electrons so the outer shell is full. Fig. 2.5
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Chap_2 - Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Life An...

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