Chap_3 - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Aside from water,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Aside from water, most biologically related molecules contain carbon.---Organic molecules are molecules containing carbon. Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of molecules Carbon has a valence of 4. Can bind to 2, 3, or 4 other atoms. Another factor which leads to the versatility of organic molecules is the attachment of functional groups (see table 3-1)---Functional groups are small characteristic groups of atoms which are frequently bonded to the carbon skeleton of organic molecules. Functional Groups Similar to the carbon skeleton of an organic molecule Similar to the functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton of an organic molecule Table 3-1 Functional groups: Have specific chemical and physical properties. Are regions of organic molecules which are frequently chemically reactive. Behave consistently from one organic molecule to another. Can determine the chemical properties of the organic molecule in which they are located. 1) Hydroxyl Group (-OH)---Hydroxyl group is a functional group of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom which is bonded to a carbon atom (of the carbon skeleton).-Is a polar group-Involved in condensation (dehydration) and hydrolysis reactions What molecule is removed during dehydration synthesis? Carboxyl Methyl Phosphate Water What molecule is removed during dehydration synthesis? Carboxyl Methyl Phosphate Water Fig. 3-1 2) Polar functional group. Extremely hydrophilic. Makes parts of a molecule water soluble. 3)Carboxyl Group (-COOH)---Carboxyl group is a functional group in which a carbon atom is double bonded to an oxygen atom (like a carbonyl) and is also single bonded to the oxygen atom of a hydroxyl group.-Since this group can donate a proton, it is acidic-Involved in peptide bonds between amino acids 4)Amino Groups (-NH2)---Amino groups are functional groups in which two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a nitrogen atom which is bonded to a carbon atom (of the carbon skeleton).-Acts as a weak base (similar to ammonia) because it accepts protons. -Involved in peptide bonds between amino acids 5) Forms disulfide bonds within and between proteins. Found in numerous proteins in biological systems. amino acid amino group amino group carboxyl group amino acid carboxyl group A peptide bond forms between which two functional groups? Hydroxyl and amino Hydroxyl and carboxyl Hydroxyl and methyl Carboxyl and amino A peptide bond forms between which two functional groups? Hydroxyl and amino Hydroxyl and carboxyl Hydroxyl and methyl Carboxyl and amino 6)Phosphate Groups (-PO 4 )---Phosphate group is a functional group which is the dissociated form of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) 6)Phosphate Groups (-PO 4 )-Acts as an acid because of the ability to donate protons....
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Chap_3 - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Aside from water,...

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