Chap_6 - MATTER AND ENERGY Some basics you should...

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MATTER AND ENERGY Some basics you should know: --- matter is anything that takes up space and has mass -the physical material of the universe --- Energy is the capacity to do work.
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There are two major categories of energy 1) potential energy 1) kinetic energy
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--- Potential energy is energy stored in matter because of its position or location. --- Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Potential energy in biological systems can be stored in chemical bonds
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The Laws of Thermodynamics Describe the Properties of Energy Energy transfer by organisms is subject to two laws of thermodynamics --- First Law of Thermodynamics which states that energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed (i.e., the energy of the universe is constant).
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---Second Law of Thermodynamics which states that every energy transfer or transformation makes the universe more disordered (i.e., every process increases entropy at the cost of useful energy) --- Entropy is the measure of disorder, randomness.
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100 units chemical energy (concentrated) gas 25 units kinetic energy (motion) 75 units heat energy Fig. 6.2
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Why do you get hot when you work out? Muscles are broken down and heat up when you workout. All the chemical energy in food is directly converted to the energy of heat. As the energy in food is converted to the energy of movement, all the energy is converted to heat. As the energy in food is converted to the energy of movement, some of the original energy is converted to heat.
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If every energy transfer loses usable energy, why doesn’t life on the planet simply run out of energy? The planet isn’t a closed system . Energy is constantly flowing in from the sun.
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A closed system is a system which is completely isolated from its surroundings. In an open system energy can be transferred between the system and the surroundings.
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In all chemical reactions you begin with one set of substances, reactants, and end with a different set of substances, products. 0 A + B
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Chap_6 - MATTER AND ENERGY Some basics you should...

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