Chap_8 - Chapter 8 HARVESTING ENERGY FROM FOOD: GLYCOLYSIS...

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Chapter 8 HARVESTING ENERGY FROM FOOD: GLYCOLYSIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION
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Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Fig. 8.1
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C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 => 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy (ATP + heat) We break down glucose to CO 2 and energy
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Mitochondria Powerhouses for the cell. Produce the cell’s ATP. Mitochondria malfunctions can have serious consequences for an individual’s health. More than 100 genetic mitochondrial disorders have been identified, and all lead to energy shortage, muscle weakness and chronic fatigue.
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Cellular respiration is a cumulative function of glycolysis , the Krebs cycle , and electron transport . Three metabolic stages of cellular respiration: 1. Glycolysis 2. Krebs cycle (a.k.a Citric Acid Cycle) 3. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
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Fig. 8.2
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>>>>> Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by breaking down glucose to pyruvate Glyco =sugar Lysis =to break apart ---Glycolysis is a catabolic pathway during which a six-carbon glucose is split into two three-carbon sugars, which are then rearranged by a stepwise process that produces two pyruvic acid molecules.
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---Glycolysis -Occurs in the cytoplasm -Partially oxidizes glucose (C6) in two pyruvic acid (C3) molecules
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C C C C C C C glucose Glycolysis (cytoplasm) C C C 2 pyruvate ATP 2 A multi-step pathway that takes place in the cytoplasm. Splits glucose to pyruvate Occurs with or without O 2
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The reactions of glycolysis occur in two phases 1. Glucose activation phase 2. Energy harvest phase
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glucose fructose bisphosphate ATP 2 2 ADP Glucose activation C C C C C C C C C C C C -uses cellular ATP to phosphorylate (adds a phosphate group to) the glycolysis intermediates -costs two ATP molecules per glucose Fig. 8.3
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glucose fructose bisphosphate G3P pyruvate NAD + ADP ATP 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 ADP NADH ATP Energy harvest Glucose activation C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C -produces ATP -yields 4 ATP molecules per glucose -2 molecules of NADH per glucose Fig. 8.3
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Glycolysis is distinct from cellular respiration because: Glycolysis does not produce ATP. Glycolysis utilizes oxygen. Glycolysis does not occur in the mitochondria. The products of glycolysis do not enter the mitochondria.
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Fermentation (see fig 8-8) If there is no oxygen present then the pyruvic acid molecules from glycolysis go through fermentation - anaerobic (takes place without O 2 ) -No ATP production -results in the partial degradation of sugars -regenerates NAD +
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The two most common products of pyruvate reduction are either ethanol or lactic acid. 1. Alcohol
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Chap_8 - Chapter 8 HARVESTING ENERGY FROM FOOD: GLYCOLYSIS...

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