ppt4 - Cell Structure and Function of Bacteria and Archaea...

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CEE444 1 Cell Structure and Function of Bacteria and Archaea 2 Overview Cell size Cell shape and arrangement Cell structure and functions ± Cell wall ± Cell membrane ± Cytoplasmic matrix ± Structures external to cell wall
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3 Size range of bacteria: 0.3 - 700 μ m in length or diameter How small are prokaryotic cells? 4 Shape, and Arrangement (1) cocci (s., coccus) – spheres ± diplococci (s., diplococcus) – pairs ± streptococci – chains ± staphylococci – grape-like clusters ± tetrads – 4 cocci in a square ± sarcinae – cubic configuration of 8 cocci
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5 Shape, and Arrangement (2) bacilli (s., bacillus) – rods ± coccobacilli – very short rods ± vibrios – curved rods mycelium – network of long, multinucleate filaments 6 Shape, and Arrangement (3) spirilla (s., spirillum) – rigid helices spirochetes – flexible helices pleomorphic – organisms that are variable in shape
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7 Prokaryotic Plasma Membranes 5 – to nm thick; can only be seen with electron microscope membranes are an absolute requirement for all living cells separation of cytoplasm from the external environment selectively permeable barrier ± some molecules are allowed to pass into or out of the cell ± transport systems aid in movement of molecules 8 More functions… location of crucial metabolic processes detection of and response to chemicals in surroundings with the aid of special receptor molecules in the membrane
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9 Membrane components and structure lipids and proteins ± lipids usually form a bilayer ± proteins are embedded within or associated with the the lipid bilayer Fluid mosaic model of membrane structure. Highly organized, asymmetric, flexible, and dynamic 10 Membrane lipids phospholipid ± building blocks of membrane ± polar ends Interact with water hydrophilic ± nonpolar ends insoluble in water hydrophobic
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11 Membrane lipids A fluid-like amphipathic bilayer ± Advantages Flexible Prevent unwanted entry or exist of materials
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14 Functions of cell wall provides characteristic shape to cell protects the cell from osmotic lysis (cell bursting due to entry of water) Unlike cell membranes, cell walls are freely permeable may also contribute to pathogenicity may also protect cell from toxic substances
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15 Cell wall components Bacteria ± polysaccharide formed from peptidoglycan subunits ± two alternating sugars N -acetylglucosamine N -acetylmuramic acid Archaea ± lack peptidoglycan ± can be composed of proteins, glycoproteins, or polysaccharides 16 Three domains
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2010 for the course CEE CEE444 taught by Professor Wen-tsoliu during the Spring '10 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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ppt4 - Cell Structure and Function of Bacteria and Archaea...

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