ppt5 - Microbial Nutrition and Growth 1 Overview Types of...

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1 Microbial Nutrition and Growth 2 Overview Types of nutritions Nutritional types of microorganisms Uptake of nutritions Cultivation of microorganisms ± Culture media ± Measurement of growth Environmental factors affecting microbial growth
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3 The Common Nutrient Requirements macroelements (macronutrients) ± Macro - required in relatively large amounts ± Making up >95% of cellular dry weight ± C, O, H, N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe micronutrients (trace elements) ± required in trace amounts ± often supplied in water or in media components ± Mn, Zn, Co, Mo, Ni, and Cu 4 Requirements for Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen often satisfied together autotrophs ± use carbon dioxide as their sole or principal carbon source and water and H and O sources heterotrophs ± use organic molecules as C, H and O sources
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7 mixotrophy •chemical energy source (inorganic) •inorganic H/e - donor •organic carbon source 8 Requirements for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur needed for synthesis of important molecules (e.g., amino acids, nucleic acids, phospholipid, ATP) nitrogen supplied in numerous ways ± organic molecules ± ammonia ± Reduction of nitrate to ammonia via assimilatory nitrate reduction ± Reduction of nitrogen gas to ammonia via nitrogen fixation phosphorus usually supplied as inorganic phosphate sulfur usually supplied as sulfate via assimilatory sulfate reduction
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9 Growth Factors organic compounds essential cell components (or their precursors) that the cell cannot synthesize must be supplied by environment if cell is to survive and reproduce 10 Classes of growth factors amino acids ± needed for protein synthesis purines and pyrimidines ± needed for nucleic acid synthesis vitamins ± function as enzyme cofactors
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13 14 Culture Media preparations devised to support the growth (reproduction) of microorganisms can be liquid (broth) or solid (plate) ± solid media are usually solidified with agar sulfated polysaccharide important to study of microorganisms
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15 Synthetic or Defined Media all components and their concentrations are known 16 Complex Media contain some ingredients of unknown composition and/or concentration
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17 Types of Media general purpose media ± support the growth of many microorganisms ± e.g., tryptic soy agar enriched media ± general purpose media supplemented by blood or other special nutrients ± Support the growth of fastidious microorganisms ± e.g., blood agar 18 Types of media… selective media ± favor the growth of some microorganisms and inhibit growth of others ± e.g., MacConkey agar selects for gram-negative bacteria
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19 Types of media… differential media ± distinguish between different groups of
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ppt5 - Microbial Nutrition and Growth 1 Overview Types of...

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