ppt9 - 3/10/2009 CEE444, Microbial systematics/phylogeny...

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3/10/2009 1 CEE444, Microbial systematics/phylogeny Microbial systematics Taxonomy Definition Taxonomic level Nomenclature Systematics Phenotypic Phylogenetic Genotypic Species concept Readings (will be available later) CEE444 Spring 2009 Five Kingdoms - Robert Whittaker 1960s Eight Kingdoms - Thomas Cavalier-Smith 1980s Microbial taxonomy CEE444 Spring 2009
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3/10/2009 2 Three domains Three domains (Carl Woese 1970s) -Most accepted by microbiologists -Primarily based on rRNA sequence analysis CEE444 Spring 2009 General Introduction and Overview taxonomy science of biological classification consists of three separate but interrelated parts classification – arrangement of organisms into groups (taxa; s.,taxon) based on their mutual similarities or evolutionary relationship nomenclature – assignment of names to taxa according to published rules identification – determination of taxon to which an isolate belongs CEE444 Spring 2009
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3/10/2009 3 Importance of taxonomy places organisms into meaningful, useful groups, with precise names, thus facilitating scientific communication essential for accurate identification of organisms allows scientists to make predictions and frame hypotheses about related organisms CEE444 Spring 2009 CEE444 Spring 2009
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3/10/2009 4 Level of taxonomy Domain Phylum Class Order » Family » Genus » Species CEE444 Spring 2009 Taxonomic ranks – non-overlapping hierarchal arrangement Domain Bacteria - divided into at least 23 phyla CEE444 Spring 2009
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3/10/2009 5 Definitions Species Eukaryotic organisms A group of interbreeding natural populations that are capable of reproducing fertile offsprings Horse + donkey = mule (infertile) Prokaryotic organisms Classical definition : a collection of strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other groups of strains Modern definition : a collection of strains that have a similar G+C composition (< 5 % differences) and at least 70% similarity in their genome CEE444 Spring 2009 Definition Genus well defined group of one or more species that is clearly separate from other genera < 10 % differences in G+C composition, < 93 % similary in rRNA gene sequence CEE444 Spring 2009
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3/10/2009 6 Binomial system of nomenclature each organism has a Latin name comprised of: genus name – italicized and capitalized (e.g., Escherichia ) species epithet – italicized but not capitalized (e.g., coli ) can be abbreviated after first use (e.g., E. coli) microbiologists often use informal names e.g., methane-oxidizing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria CEE444 Spring 2009 Nomenclature Naming Genus + species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genus + sp. : Saccharomyces sp. / Genus + spp. : Saccharomyces spp. Genus + species + var. + mutant:
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2010 for the course CEE CEE444 taught by Professor Wen-tsoliu during the Spring '10 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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ppt9 - 3/10/2009 CEE444, Microbial systematics/phylogeny...

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