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notes for test 1

# notes for test 1 - Methods of Knowing o Authority o...

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8/26/10 Methods of Knowing o Authority Somebody you trust has told you. Most things are learned this way; the information is given to the people by others. o Rationalism Philosophy The logic reasoning that I did in my philosophy class If-then o Intuition You feel as though it has to be true. A belief system you come up with, without being influenced by other beliefs. Gut feeling OCD people come up with their own belief system o Scientific Method Ex. Leonardo Da Vinci as an artist (observer) Involves testing Statistics o A field of mathematics that is divided into two branches: Descriptive statistics Attempts to describe data in an easy to understand way o Mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, graphs, etc. Inferential statistics Use descriptive statistics and probability theorem to make judgments about reality o T test, chi square, etc.

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Population o Group of interest Sample o A subset of the population Scientific Method o Observation o From observations comes a theory o From a theory comes a testable hypothesis A good “testable” hypothesis has to be able to be proven wrong. Falsifiable o From a testable hypothesis comes a test Example o Observation- Coffee seems to make you hyperactive because you are more energetic, your hands shake, you can’t sleep, etc. o Theory- you think coffee makes you hyperactive o Testable hypothesis- 40 people for population. Half drink coffee and half will not. After 30 minutes you check the heart rate and see if the people that drink coffee have a higher heart rate. o Test- you test and see if its right. If yes, it supports the theory but it doesn’t make the theory correct. One test does not make your theory correct, you need multiple tests. If no, you do not throw the theory out. You modify the testable hypothesis or possibly the theory itself. If no, MODIFY. If yes, SUPPORT. Testing an experiment o True Experiment 1. Randomly Divide Subjects (very important)
Ex. When you divide the 40 people, if you ask who wants coffee and give them it, this is not a true experiment. 2. Manipulate the Independent Variable 3. Measure the Dependent Variable Ex. Mean Coffee gp = 75 bpm/ Mean no Coffee gp = 65 bpm May infer that coffee CAUSED an increase in Heart Rate o Correlation Method 1. Measure Two Variables 2. Calculate the Relationship Ex. Pearson’s correlation = +.90 +1 is the highest correlation possible This is a positive correlation which means as one goes up, the other goes up (more coffee, more hyperactivity) Support for hypothesis but cannot Infer Causality*** 3 rd variable problem o A 3 rd variable could be causing the heart rate to go up and it has nothing to do with coffee.

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notes for test 1 - Methods of Knowing o Authority o...

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