Exam 2 - Essay 1 Kant In chapter 3 of the Groundwork Kant...

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Essay 1- Kant In chapter 3 of the Groundwork, Kant comes upon the question of whether or not we can reconcile the idea that we are members of the natural world with the idea that we have genuine moral obligations. According to Kant, these two ideas do not contradict each other. Kant argues that we are members of both the sensible/natural world as well as the intelligible world. In the natural world, we are subject to the laws of nature, which bring about the idea of causation. This deterministic truth however, is a presupposition to us living in a natural world. We do not experience causation, as we can have no idea of any force connecting two objects, but we must assume this to be true in order to live in a natural world. In this same way, we must presuppose that we are autonomous, or free, in order to live in an intelligible world and have genuine moral obligations. This is because the only way for us to have genuine moral obligations is to have the autonomy, or the freedom, to choose our actions. We can reconcile living in these two worlds without contradiction because of the fact that each is based on a presupposition that allows it to be true. Essay 2-Descartes’ method of doubt In Meditations on First Philosophy, Rene Descartes’ goal is to put all of knowledge on a firm foundation. He is trying to build up all of knowledge starting with pieces that are necessarily and wholly true, using these pieces as the foundation from which all other, less firm, knowledge can be sought after. Descartes’ method through which to find this apodictic knowledge is to consider our basic beliefs and determine whether or not there is any doubt whatsoever in them. Any of the beliefs that are found to contain doubt are put aside, so as to ensure the firmness of the foundation of knowledge. Descartes chooses to start his analysis with the most basic beliefs, for if our basic beliefs contain doubt, than so do any beliefs built upon them. The belief that my senses give me accurate information about objects in the world and what they're like is the starting point of his analysis. However, this contains doubt, as my
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senses can sometimes deceive me, such as when things are perceived in bad conditions or through one sense only. If I eliminate these things, and make a basic belief saying that my senses give me accurate information, providing that I seem to perceive things in good conditions and through more than one sense, another piece of doubt emerges. I could be dreaming. A third basic belief that contains doubt is the belief that my senses at least give me knowledge about the most general kinds of things, such as colors and shapes, and that my reason gives me knowledge of simple truths, such as simple mathematics and truths of reason. This contains doubt as well, as there could be an evil genius deceiving me, putting images in my mind of false sensations, as well as consistently making me go wrong even in the most simple of my calculations. This brings us to another basic belief, that I exist. This is the first belief that contains no
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Exam 2 - Essay 1 Kant In chapter 3 of the Groundwork Kant...

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