Intro to Philosophy 101

Intro to Philosophy 101 - to God to command one thing over...

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What right/wrong is independent of beliefs about right/ wrong Whats right for me to do is whatever I think is right for me to do Whats right for me is whatever my culture holds it is right to do Principle consistently held as universal law s to God to command one thing over another. He could have just as well commanded us to kill, but it would’ve been right. ommand what He does for good moral reasons im to issue these commands cts right/wrong the same moral truths, regardless of whether or not we’re believers or have same religious beliefs. o ng that we can all aim to figure out (Bentham) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Article on consequentialism s he define each term? How does he argue that these are the only meaningful/relevant definitions? Intro to Philosophy 101 Philos: Love Sophia: Wisdom Philosophy: questions not obviously answered by empirically/scientific means (reason?) In some sense fundamental Science originally called natural philosophy Questions where there seems to be “common sense” evidence or intuitions pulling in different directions 1. Ethics: Which sorts of action are right/wrong? What is it that makes things right & others wrong? a. What your culture believes is right/wrong (Cultural Relativism) b. “natural” vs. “unnatural” in the species sense (Naturalism) c. Whatever God commands (Divine Command Theory) d. What you believe is right/wrong (Individual Relativism) e. Their consequences for overall happiness? Well being? (Utilitarianism) f. For personal happiness (egoism) g. Their consistency of basic rights or principles (Deontology or “can’t” do something) h. Universality: Act only on a principle you could consistently want everyone to act on 2. Free Will/ Determinism: Do we have free will, or is the future fully determined by causal laws a. Evidence for free will: i. uncertainty about future ii. Feeling that we can choose our actions, and it impacts the future course of events b. Evidence for determinism: i. The past seems fixed, & looking back we can often see that events we didn’t expect were inevitable. ii. Scientific evidence: Everything in nature seems determined- We are part of nature- Why think that we r different? 3. Skepticism/Realism-Idealism a. What can we be sure of?
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b. Skepticism: i. Can we be sure of anything? ii. Even of a real world outside of experience? c. Realism/Idealism: i. Is there a real world outside of experience? 9/1/09 Ethics What makes an action right/ wrong? In virtue of what are some actions morally acceptable, unacceptable, obligatory? Looking for a general answer that: 1. Fits well w/ our most central, uncontroversial intuitions about which actions are right/ wrong 2. Can help decide the tricky cases Theories of Morality Objectivism Relativism: What makes an act right is it accepted as right Individual Cultural Consequentialism: based on conseq. Deontology: right is independent conse.
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Egoism: Totalitarianism: Divine Command: Kantianism: personal happiness happiness of everyone
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course PSY 110 taught by Professor Winters during the Spring '08 term at University of Miami.

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Intro to Philosophy 101 - to God to command one thing over...

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