notes - Interactionism The idea that its not just traits or...

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“Interactionism” The idea that its not just traits or situations that matter in predicting behavior Traits matter a lot in some situations, but not at all in others “Strong” situations force behavior to fit them; “weak” situations allow traits to be expressed freely Biological Views on Personality Origins: 1. The trait view 2. Behavior genetics 3. Neuropsychology Not fully formed but has a set of themes One set of themes: Traits are genetically influenced Studies of temperaments Extended to studies of traits Studies of 5- factor model A Second set of themes: Nervous system is organized to serve certain functions Some of those functions may be displayed as qualities of personality Extraversion as approach About the sensitivity of a person’s tendency to approach incentives Neuroticism as avoidance Sensitivity to threats and avoidance Openness as exploration Whether the person changes the boundaries of his/her life space Conscientiousness as planfulness Delaying gratification till later, because its going to be bigger and better later Agreeableness as investment in relationships Links: Perhaps specific differences in patterns of brain functioning are the mechanism by which genetic influences become expressed in behavior, in ways we describe as traits Assessment (Personality assessment) Vocational interest tests Exist because when you think about questions about your future, you think about your abilities Good fit to a job depends partly to one’s abilities Vocational Interest Tests Good fit to a job also depends on things other than one’s abilities Interests and preferences Interest is assessed not by job title, but by concrete elements in different kinds of work
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“How important is it to you to make a very high income?” “How important is it to you to choose what hours you work?” Prestige, sociability of job, working in an office, lots of writing Large numbers of people in various professions answer the same set of questions Fit your profile of answers to the profiles of answers made by people in a given job who like the job and do it well Ability and Achievement Tests Ability (aptitude): Intended to measure a potential Achievement: Intended to measure learning In practice, achievement is affected by one’s aptitude In practice, measures of ability are affected by prior learning Intelligence Testing IQ tests are generally viewed as wide- ranging ability tests The “ability,” in this case, is the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge The particular ability (or set of abilities) should determine what results from experience Thus, to see this ability reflected in a test score requires experience Capacity  capacity Exposure to learning opportunities= exposure to learning opportunities IQ  IQ
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notes - Interactionism The idea that its not just traits or...

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