Psychology Exam IV

Psychology Exam IV - Psychology Exam IV 11:45 AM SOCIAL...

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Psychology Exam IV 8/22/01 11:45 AM SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: the study of how the behavior, thoughts, and feelings of once person are influenced by other people, either present or implied Emphasis on the social context as the major influence on peoples behavior “present or implied”—we carry reminders of the context around with use, cognitions about other peoples expectations and reactions isn’t 1 topic but several The topics are defined partly by the nature of the “behavior” that’s being addressed Attraction, aggression, helping, coping ATTITUDES AND ATTITUDE CHANGE 1. Attitude as predisposition to react in a particular way to some class of objects, people, events Attitudes are more focused than personality because personality is very broad while attitude=more narrow Predisposition to respond may have several components -Components of Attitude: 1.Affective: (evaluative component) attitudes always have emotional quality Attitudes always incorporate likes and dislikes 2.Cognitive: (belief component) beliefs that support the affective tone Note that not all beliefs are attitudes (some lack the affect) o Ex. Taste of apples…that they are red, not an attitude 3. Behavioral tendency (to act in ways that fit the affect) Disagreement mostly about the 3rd component Disagreement about how much structure to assume partly over the fact that the behavioral tendency is not as strongly related to the rest o Similar to the issue that arose in trait view of personality o EX. Affective Componontà negative reaction toward some group. Cognitive componentà belief that they are lazy/stupid; Behavioral Componentàacting badly toward people (discriminate) ATTITUDE FORMATION 1. Conditioning: Classical conditioning causes emotional reaction to “rub off” from US to CS
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Direct or vicarious experience i Emotional tone rubs off good or bad experiences 2. Mere Exposure i Repeated exposure leads to more positive response i The more you see them, the more you like them 3. Imitation & instrumental learning i Indirect experience, at most i Acquisition of cognitive & behavioral components first i Once an attitude is in place, is it there “forever”? o What causes it? i Two classes of phenomena Attitude Change: Persuasion -Active attempt on the part of one to influence another, using some sort of message -One of the early topics of interest in social psych., due to concern about propaganda -Early theoretical model: a source delivers a message to an audience or recipient, who processes it to some degree and may change his opinion -Lot’s of links in that chain -Variables @ each link matter -Source Variables i CREDIBILITY of the source: o Expertise (perceived) o Trustworthiness i Information on these is part of what’s called “peripheral cues” i Message Variables o 1. Repetition: How much should you repeat? A LOT o 2. How explicitly should you draw the conclusion o 3. Should you make a 1-sided presentation, or also present the other side’s arguments and why they’re wrong i It depends If the audience already favors the other side, do 2-sided, if audience favors you, 1-sided o 4.Message quality
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