bil 161 final Study Guide

bil 161 final Study Guide - BIL161 Midterm Study Guide 1...

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BIL161 Midterm Study Guide 1. Define the following: a. Evolution: biological change over time in living things; theory b. Mutation: changes in the genes of the population that are the raw materials of evolution c. Random mating : that no individuals in a population mate together more or less frequently than predicted by random chance i. Aka assortative mating d. Natural selection : the mechanism for evolution proposed by Darwin distilled from overproduction, variation, competition, and differential reproduction. e. Founder effect f. Competition: members of the same species must compete for limited environmental resources g. Population : all individuals of a single species living within a defined area h. Reproductive isolation : when members cannot breed together to produce fertile, viable offspring. i. Selective advantage: A genetic advantage of one organism over its competitors that causes it to be favored in survival and reproduction rates over time. i. Tasty prey items (beans) that are less conspicuous than equally tasty members of their population may have a selective advantage over their more visible conspecifics . j. Fitness: The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals. Adaptive advantage leads to greater relative fitness. k. Aposematic- warning cryptic- camouflaging conspecifics- other members of a species who may have lacked mutations. l. Species- group of similar organisms within which there is gene flow (can interbreed in nature to produce fertile, viable offspring) different species-reproductively isolated m. Prezygotic isolating mechanisms- prevent zygote formation n. Postzygotic isolating mechanisms- prevent hybrid offspring from surving or reproducing o. Population- all individuals of a single species living within a defined area p. Community- all the populations of living organisms living within a defined area q. Ecosystem- defined by the interactions of the living communities, with one another and with the inorganic environment, including water, air, climate, seasons, and earth. r. Fitness coefficient- is the adaptive value of a particular species’ phenotype (and genotype if the phenotype is genetically controlled)
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s. Selection coefficient- measure of selective pressure against a particular phenotype, relative to the others in the population. 2. Natural Selection works through differential mortality and survival because: a. Will act on both predator and prey 3. Seeds a. Germination: reactivation of metabolic activity in the seed culminating with the emergence of a radicle (embryonic root) and plummule (first shoot). Abscisic acid must be washed out. Three stages: i. Activation: imbibition-uptake of water, cells elongate ii. Digestion and translocation: increase in metabolic activity and protein synthesis iii. Seedling growth: rapid cell division and elongation b. Dispersal: to prosper seeds must be widely dispersed; plants use biotic dispersal agents as well as abiotic agents such as water and wind. i.
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bil 161 final Study Guide - BIL161 Midterm Study Guide 1...

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