2.5.10 - Child& Adolescent Development Spring 2010 Dr...

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Unformatted text preview: Child & Adolescent Development Spring 2010 Dr. Christine Hughes University of Miami ._‘___~ Stages of Prenatal Development . Germinal Period (0—2 weeks) n Travels through fallopian tubes to uterus a Essential Task: implant in uterus u ~40% of zygotes successfully implant u Develops into trophoblast & blastocyst From Zygote to Newborn: Stages of Prenatal Development - Conception (fertilization) o Germinal period = first two weeks “ “zygote” - Embryonic period = weeks 3-8 = “embryo” - Fetal period = weeks 9~birth D “fetus” Stages of Prenatal Development - Conception a 1 egg cell matures every 28 days a Ovary releases it into fallopian tube (ovulation) =- Meets sperm n Fertilization occurs Stages of Prenatal Development - Embryonic Period (3—8 weeks) n Miscarriage is most common a Major organs & structures develop - placenta, head, tiny blood vessel begins pumping (heart), arms 8: legs 2/2/2010 2/2/2010 Patterns of Development Stages of Prenatal Development - Cephalocaudal . Fetal Period (9 weeks-birthwmm) a Sex organs develop a Brain development is significant n Age of viability: around 22 weeks Vulnerability TABLE 4.2 Vulnerability Dori : Prenatal Develo The What Mott A! least 60 pmnt ofall developing organisms rail to grow or implant properly and thus do not survive the germinal period. Most orthese organisms are grossly abnormal. The Embryonic Perlod About 20 percent oral] embryos are aborted spontaneously, most often because of chromosomal abnormalities. The m w About 5 percent of all fetuses am aborted spontaneously before viability at 22 weeks or are stillborn, defined as born dead utter 22 weeks, Birth About 31 percent stall zygotes grow and survive to become living newborn babies. . us 0!!me Hifllfillylw. 20001501! I. "HIM. 2003. The Fetus - Age of viabilizy is the age at which a preterm newborn might survive . Weight plays a crucial role = Only 2096 under 11/2 lbs. survwe a By 28 weeks, survival rate is 9596 Risk Reduction - Temtology = the study of birth defects 0 Teratogens = harmful agents to the developing baby D to the prenatal brain a to the child’s future intellectual and emotional functioning Determining Risk - 'Timing of exposure u Critical period is the time of greatest vulnerability (for each body structure) ~ Amount of exposure a Threshold effect and interaction effect - Genetic vulnerability a sex (males at greater risk) - a cleft lip, cleft palate, club foot more common in some families Protective Measures - Some pregnant women are exposed to the tetragons with no evident harm - Some defects occur even thought the woman avoids all known tetragons while pregnant Alcohol - 10% of women drink during pregnancy (CDC, 2004) - kills vital fetal cells and reduces blood flow . Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) a Growth deficiency a Head & facial malformation n CNS dysfunction n Hyperactivity, impulsivity, distractibility Critical Periods of Development m Wk 1.... haw-l I... a fimtrdd‘flnh an up. awn Types of Teratogens - Diseases of the mother . Environmental pollutants 0 Social & behavioral factors - Legal 81 illegal drugs . Radiation Alcohol . 1.5 out of every 1,000 live births (CDC, 2004) u Others estimate at 6 in 1,000 - Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) 0 Combination of symptoms, not full FAS . Typically: chronic alcoholics or binge-drinkers I'm-”fink a .... w“ 2/2/2010 Cocaine . NIDA reports 1 in 100 women used during pregnancy . Prenatal Exposure u Preterm birth a Malformations in brain, intestines, 8: genital-urinary tract a Irritability, muscle tremors, impaired sensory function, trouble regulating their state of arousal D LONG-TERM 659cm? Current Substance Use among Pregnant Women Aged 15-44, byAge. 2006-2007 combined Aoylllum akohu Um BIIIIINCDM Use Cigarettes Substance SOWUHSKWW 2m Prematurity - Premature: born earlier or smaller than average - Low birthweight: weighing less than 2500 grams (5 1/2 lbs) = very low birthweight: < 1300 g (3 lbs) n extremely low birthweight: < 1000 g (2 lbs) - Preterm birth: born 3+ weeks early - Small for gestational age: low weight for age 2/2/2010 Cigarette Smoking 0 11.5% of pregnant women smoke a varies by age & race - cigarette smoke contains 450 harmful chemicals u Nicotine, carbon monoxide, mrbon dioxide, cyanide - LBW = most common problem - hyperactivity & attention problems Role of Fathers ‘ Is damaged sperm capable of making the journey to become a zygote? - Some evidence shows alcohol, cocaine damages sperm WW! am (mutation ”WOW mtmyu «nausea»: um". ' ”Hm Which baby is the oldest? Who should we worry about most? 2/2/2010 Possible Causes of LBW . Llf le choices hummnmmmmm m ""‘M‘m- wimwmammmxmqu a cigarette smoking accounts for 25% of LBW births "'““‘ - w '"' _ “Lena-au- n u‘ worldwndel MW...“- fir u! mwm.wm— ‘ at - Maternal age M-mm— m , - Maternal malnutrition ”MI..."- - Multiple 8: closely—spaced births mm: - Prescription drugs mime T "B"‘i€""ii' “a "3"} - Unknown causes m.....m.w-.._:::“” Preparation for Birth Stages of Birth 0 During last month of pregnancy, baby changes - Dilation: 6-14 hours posttlon a regular contractions cause the cervix to gradually - Babis brain signals release of hormones into Open (to 10 cm) mother’s bloodstream . Delivery: 30 mins-2 hours - Irregular contractions can occur hours, days or a baby moves through birth canal & is delivered weeks before active labor ' ‘ ” - Afterbirth: under 1 hour u placenta comes through birth canal, continue to experience mild contractions Methods of Delivery - Hospital (majority of US. births) . Birthing centers (5%) - At home (1%) - Doula: someone who helps women with labor, delivery, breastfeeding - Cesarean Section (31%) = intended for emergencies 2/2/2010 Methods of Delivery Drugs . “Prepared Childbirth” . 1950s: drugs dunng labor were the norm n Lamaze (1953) - Egg, £2,211;er drugs affect fetus & may Jeopardize - Epidural block a Injection of drugs into the mother's spine - Amount matters! - Some short-term effects - Few long-term consequences - presence of labor coach or companion n often father or partner - being physically fit helps! ANewborn’s First Minutes I , Birth Complications . APGAR Scale - Malpresentation ~Measuree 5 vital signs ‘ = Breech position -Score of 7+ = infant is fine , ‘ a Transverse position —Soore 4-7 = infant needs help V‘ - l ‘ Fetal Distress breathing ‘ ‘ ' _ . " N g , l a Anoxia -Soore under 4 = mfian' t needs ’ ‘ crifiealcare ,_ 3 -» ” Cerebral Palsy Problems after birth . 42% of women had some medical problem (1993-1997) - Postpartum depression a Sense of inadequacy & sadness in the days/Weeks after birth a 10-15% of Women 0 If lasting a month, get help ASAP u Several contributing causes...
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