2.11.10 - Spring 2010 Dr Christine Hughm University of...

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Unformatted text preview: Spring 2010 Dr. Christine Hughm University of Miami Cognition . Cognition = thinking; thought process n language, learning, memory, and intelligenw . Jean Piaget (1896-1980) believed infants learn through direct motor behavior . More recent research has both validated and extended Piaget’s ideas Piaget believed... - Movement to new stage requires physical . maturation and exposure to relevant experiences - Important to note changes in quality of children’s knowledge, in addition to the content of their knowledge = scheme (ACTION = KNOWLEDGE) 2/11/2010 «anew/W ,“ WWWWM How do infants learn? - Classical conditioning n Ex. Little Albert & the white rat - Operant conditioning - Habituation a most primitive form of learning a when presented with new stimulus, infants show an orienting response - Quiet, attentive, slowed heart rate WWW Piaget believed... - All children pass through four universal stages in a fixed order (birth to adolescence) w. i i r L—...L,.,..__.‘__#4 ‘ I’m-rm! sags d mgr-mu ma 1" I u E 1 . 5' 11min unu- mum-mm i" Mi km... W." rm _. s. WWMV,“ 3.932;. Adapting to New ldeas - Assimilation: taking new information in by incorporating it into existing schemas u Ex: A red ball bounces like a blue ball - Accommodation: requires an adjustment of previous schemas upon new information = Ex: A red tomato does NOT bounce like a red ball! Piaget’s First Stage . Sensorimotor = learning through senses and motor actions - Birth 9 2 years - 6 substages - Age at transitions can vary by child - Not a sudden change! a gradual and steady shifting of behavior as move towards next stage of development WW ,m "m a,“ mm» w" r. Sensorimotor Stage ' Substage 3: making interesting events last u Secondary circular reactions: repetitive actions on the outside world that result in a desired consequence a Ex: shakes a rattle in different ways to hear how the sound changes - Substage 4: coordination of secondary circular reactions D Infant shows goal~directed behavior a Object permanence begins Sensorimotor Stage - Substage 5: new understanding through active experimentation n Piaget called infants in this stage “little scientists” because of their need for experimentation n Tertiary circular reactions: deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences a Ex: An infant drops her spoon to see what will happen Sensorimotor Stage o Substage 1: simple reflexes - Substage 2: first habits n Primary circular reactions: repetitive actions with the infant’s own body for own enjoyment a Ex: an infant sucking his thumb 2/ 1 1/ 2010 cm Km mmmm ' V »--‘~ “‘ ‘7 Senson‘ motor Stage 0 Substage 6: beginnings of thought a Infants can think before taking action a Ex. wondering “should I really pull that cat’s tail?” 5 Deferred imitation: infants can copy the behavior of others, even days later WWW www.m- Which substage is this infant showing? ‘ For an overviewafrhe stages of unsorlmmor thought. it helps to gloup the six stages into pairs. The first two stages involve the infant’s responses to Its own body (primaiy rimilur mscthms): sane One Reflexes—sucking. grasping. staring. listening (birth to 1 month) Stage Two The first acqulivd adaptation lassimitation and coordination of [1—4 momhsl reflexes]. Examples: sucking u pacifier differently hunt a nipple; grabbing a battle to suck it. The next two sings involve the infant’s mamnscs to objects and people [summary circular motions): Stage Three An awareness ol'rmngsvrcsponding to people and objects. (4-3 months] Examplu: clapping hands when mother says ”patty-cake.’ Stage Four New adaptation and anfidpatlwbecomlng more deliberate (842 months] and purposeful in mpondlng to people and ohiects. Examplm pulling mother's hands together in order to malts her sum playing patty-rake- The In! two slants Im the most creative. first with action Ind than wtth idols [tertiary circular mum); Stage Five New mums through active mpurlmemaliom—experhnmmian [12—13 months] and nativity in the amen: of the ‘llltle scientist.” Example: putting a teddy hear in the toilet and llttshlng it. Stage Six New moans thmugh mental mmlrilmn‘orw—{onsidcr'ing before [13-24 months] doing provides the child with new ways orachiev-ing a goal without resorting to lrial-nnd-ermr experiments Emma: More flushlng. remembering that the will! werfiowcd the last time, and heslming. Piaget Today Challenges . Disagree that: a Development is discontinuous (stages) n Motor activity is crucial u Object permanence develops ~ 12 months D Ability to imitate (esp. facial expressions) is learned «imam ' W: ’ ‘i‘mm‘ «r What substage is this infant showing? What characteristic of that substage is this? Miwfimfimfifimnmmxwr: 1’ ‘v Piaget Today Support . Agree that: u Children learn by acting on objects in their environment 0 His broad outline of the sequence of cognitive development (increasingly cognitive accomplishments) are accurate ‘11; .V ., H mm Understanding the Specifics - Information processing approach seeks to identify the way we take in, use, and store information 0 Cognitive growth = increasing sophistication, speed & capacity m ; Ij‘, Albion-HM " 2/11/2010 Information Processing - Three Basic Aspects v Encoding = how info is initially recorded in aform usable to memory 0 Storage = placement of material into memory a Retrieval = how material in memory storage is located, brought to awareness, and used - Great punk: of perception: u 2 people can not only interpret the same situation differently, but also observe it differently Affo rdances - Perception is not automatic in every situation - Affordances = opportunities for perception and interaction that the environment offers . These depend on: a past experiences a current developmental level n sensory awareness of opportunities a immediate needs and motivation Automatization . Automatization == degree to which an activity requires attention a Process is “automatic” if requires little (or no) attention - Depends on situation, and familiarity with the experience =- Ex. eating with utensils, reading a book . Innate grasp of mathematical functions & statistical patterns Visual Cliff ~ First, thought perception of a visual cliff was only due to visual maturity ‘1 specifically, depth perception B because 6 mo. crawl over it, 10 mo. would not . Now, know 3 mo. can detect the difference a just don’t realize one affordance is falling! a older infants realize this (based on experience or caregiver’s fearful reaction) 2/11/2010 mwmm ” smmm—w' um """"' ' Movement & People 0 Infants have dynamic perception a focused on movement and change . They have a people preference from the first days of life! a Ex: listen to voices, stare at faces, are soothed by touch o research on intermodal perception 2/11/2010 WWW‘V‘“ Memory Memory . Memory = the process by which information is ' Even very young infants initially recorded, stored, and retrieved (3 mo? can ”mew?“ IF: = experimental conditions are . Infantile amnesia: lack of memory for "real life" experience that occurred before 3 years old ° motivation is high a special measures aid - How old is your first memory? HOW far can you memory retrieval think back? (repetition and reminders) . Rovee~Collier’s mobile experiment NEW - 3 .w ,awmwmmw Rovee-Collier’s experiment Memory - Deferred imitation begins by 9 months, becoming more elaborate with age = Ex: a young infant imitates hitting the dog, a behavior modeled by an older sibling - Implicit memory (for routines) develops sooner than explicit memory (for facts) a Explicit memory ~ 18 mos. ...
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