2.16.10 - Spring 2010 Dr Christine Hughes University of...

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Unformatted text preview: Spring 2010 Dr. Christine Hughes University of Miami ‘ m ABOUT nus ms: The Deveioprmnt of S on in the First Two Years Learning Language: 2 Months - 2-3 months: n cooing, crying, fussing. and laughing - Infants use these sounds in a playful and meaningful way during face-to-face interactions - Video: 2—month—01ds What is Language? - An arbitrary system of symbols (words) that is rule-governed and a110ws communication about things that are distant in time & space . Three key features: a Semanticity 0 Productivity a Displacement 2/16/2010 " _ mmwm a» Learning Language: Newborns . Prefer child-directed speech 0 Communicative sounds and gestures are reflexive 9 make their needs known through crying, expressions, and gestures 0 Video: Newborns Learning Language: 4 Months . 3-4 months: a squeals, growls, croons, trills, vowel sounds - The child and caretaker share emotions, each focusing on the emotional expressions of the other ' - Video: 3-4 months 2/16/2010 Learning Language: 6 Months Learning Language: 9 Months - 6 months: - 9 months: a Babbling = repetitions of syllables u babbling gibberish, saying their first word a such as “da—da—da—da,” “dee-dee-dee-dee,” or “ma-ma— approxtmatlons, maybe even the fil‘St word! ma” - They understand a few simple words ~ Video: 6—month—old infants - Video: 9-month—old infants Learning Language: 12 Months Learning Language: 18 Months . First word typically appears now - Naming Explosion: language spurt a Holophrase = single-word utterance n learn about one new word every few hours! - Vocabulary grows gradually between 12 and 18 mo. ' start to use two-word strings around 21 mos. 0 Video: 12-month—old infants ' Video: 18-month-old Infants m. mm "1.3%". Learning Language: 24 Months Timing of Pirogduiction VS Compreheinslon ,WJ mammal“;- sumo: Mun-titanium . By24 months (end of infancy), children typically l '5 m ‘ gmmwm are using multiword sentences - ‘ ‘ “WWW“M'WWW (In: mum of [Mfll MH- - Video: two-year-olds (clips A 8: B) “sawmill-hook: "W . mum "Mu-Iliad W uwmm raw-d: i» W minim firm-In Madly M m “Hm Vaulun' to mod sit-darn _ Imus-u nun-dun Iva-Hog mam Growing up Bilingual - Learning two languages simultaneously can slow grammar development . But! this does NOT mean there is a language delay or problem - Input in both languages is crucial factor as to how fluent the infant will become . By 2 years old, realize some people use 1 language or the other... .l ,. le‘va'l‘x Theories of Language Development . Learning Theory: “They are taught” a Behaviorists, like B. F. Skinner - Nativist Theory: “They teach themselves” a Cognitive theorists, like Noam Chomsky - Social Interactionist Theory: “Social impulses foster learning” Learning Theory - Shaping = selectively reinforcing certain behaviors while ignoring/punishing others . Child makes sounds, then... a Adults reinforce ones that resemble real words and ignore those that don’t D So: child repeats word-like sounds, others fade out o Imitation & Modeling: Adults... a provide models of advanced language a extend & elaborate words and phrases 2/16/2010 fiflwnmfigmmwm 2;.- .7'm How does this happen? . All agree that humans have a strong instinctive drive to acquire language . An impoverished language environment will negatively affect rate of acquisition and quality of language... - BUT! it is very difficult to keep humans from learning any language Learning Theory - Based on: u Skinner‘s operant conditioning n Bandura’s learning through imitation . “environmental View” = language is viewed as a behavior that we learn . Specific language training is KEY! u Biological predispositions are not important 2" Learning Theory: Criticism - Unclear how consistent parents are in shaping their children’s language a we don’t explicitly teach rules of language . Much of what children hear is incomplete and/or am of errors - Cannot account for children’s novel utterances a overgeneralizations: “I goed to school” . Learn at very rapid pace—too fast to be explained by reinforcement, shaping & imitation Nativist Theory - Language: innate human capability, which develops when language input triggers a language acquisition device (LAD) . “biological view” = born with a LAD, a brain mechanism specialized for detecting & learning the rules of language . Must hear some language to activate LAD a but extensive input is not necessary, and it doesn’t have to be grammatically correct Nativist Theory: Criticism - Extremely impoverished language environments can prevent language learning . Non-humans can develop language - Have not located the LAD in the brain ~ Argue that environment’s only role is to activate LAD a Research shows if adult feedback is poor, children show language delays or deficits - Have not identified a single “universal grammar” that applies to all known languages Language Areas of the Brain . hogs.) 11‘ gyms ix ‘ swarms! 034m . hen-aw: must-rams xvii-10M Nativist Theory - Since LAD is innate, doesn’t require great cognitive skill or effort a Children with disabilities still learn language - Chomsky: LAD contains innate knowledge of universal grammar 0 Once we determine the specific grammatical construction system, easily learn the language - Others: LAD contains operating principles n We’re predisposed to pay special attention to certain aspects of the language we hear 2/16/2010 '13.“. . _ N Specialized Brain Areas / Physiolog - Broca’s area: left frontal lobe D directs patterns of muscle movements necessary to produce speech ~ Wernicke’s area: left temporal lobe n allows us to understand spoken words, and produce coherent written & spoken language - Armratefasciculus: band of fibers connecting Broca’s to Wernicke’s - Angular gyrus: processes written language - Human throat & mouth is designed to produce complex sounds of language m ‘ v _, \wwmmr heed Social Interactionist Theory . Language results from the complex interaction of biological predisposition 81 social interactions . Agree with Nativists that humans are biologically prepared to learn language, a BUT: believe that simply hearing it is not enough! - Interacting with others is crucial: Children need to have conversations with other people . Assumes children have a strong drive to communicate effectively with others Evidence: the desire to communicate drives language development n Lemma; Frohmm m Child Rm!“ Inference in in Social Interactionist Theory and new directions... - Even this does not explain everything in language development... - Hybrid model: combining valid aspects of several theories of language development a concept formation = key a begin producing language at ~12m because have started to cognitively develop 2/16/2010 ,, m n u “m: “m”, .. : ..; 1“ Social Interactionist Theory . Adults recast children’s statements a Restatement of what child said, with corrected grammar - Adults expand children’s statements a Add additional statements, using correct grammar, which the child then responds to - Often present language in a predictable, structured interaction a Songs with gestures, peek-a-boo, daily routines ...
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