2.18.10 - What does “psychosocial” mean Psychosocial...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/18/2010 What does “psychosocial” mean? . Psychosocial development is the combination of emotional and social development - interactions with sensitive, responsive caregivers foster healthy psychosocial development Spring 2010 Dr. Christine Hughes University of Miami Can infants experience emotion? 335“ Emotions . Basic facial expressions = universal 0 At birth: interest, disgust, distress & - We are born able to display basic emotions contentment n Izard’s research - By 6 months: anger, - BUT: do facial expressions mean they experience sadness, surprise & fear if emotion, or are they simply reflexive behaviors? . After 12 months: embarrassment, pride, guilt & shame ‘1 AT ABOUT THIS THEE: Infant Fear . Stranger anxiety = display caution & war-iness when encountering an unfamflxar person ° Separation anxiety = display distress when a caregiver leaves ' Example: shows both types of fear ' ,- ‘Jr/ ,' guy; Stranger & Separation Anxiety - Both develop around 6-9 months a Universal! seen in all cultures a Stranger anxiety usually is present before separation anxiety - Strongest stranger anxiety for: adults, men, dressed unusually, acting as if they may take the infant away 0 Separation anxiety peaks at ~14 months - Video: stranger & separation anxiety The Self-Conscious Emotions . With children’s self-awareness comes the ability to realize their own abilities and shortcomings o “It seems that building self-esteem results not from praising young children, but from enabling them to accomplish things that make them feel proud.” (auger. was) Theories about Caregiving . How does the interaction between caregiver and infant shape the infant’s behavior, personality, and relationships with others? a Psychodynamic n Behaviorism n Cognitive u Epigenetic Year 2: Complex Emotions - Self-Awareness = the realization that you are a unique person separate from others - Emerges around 15-18 months a measured by reaction to dot of rouge on face a is the prerequisite for pride, embarrassment, guilt. shame, jealousy, empathy - Video: Developing Self—Awareness Emotional Self-Regulation - Emotional self-regulation u involves self-monitoring and modulating = gradual progression over time . Factors contributing to its development: a Culture’s emotional display rules a Motor development a Growth in representation and language a Caregiver involvement . Freud: conflicts during the oral and and stages shaped the infant’s later personality :1 Oral: Mother’s prevention of infant’s urge to suck can lead to an “oral fixation” in adult a Anal: Too strict toilet training can lead to an “anal-retentive” personality , 2/18/2010 ’ . , > . , .qutmunugr‘ Psychoanalytic Theory Psychosocial Theory Erikson’s first two stages: - Trustvs. Mistrust a quality of care in the first year shapes the infant’s View of the consistency and predictability of the world - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt a basic need to gain self-rule or feel ashamed that it doesn’t happen Cognitive Theory - Infants form a concept of what to expect from people a a working model = a set of assumptions about relationships . Child’s interpretation of early experiences is crucial . Ex: Based on the behavior of the caregiver, an infant learns to expect that people can be trusted (or not) e- ems “was s Temperament: an example of Epigenetic Theory - Temperament = “constitutionally based” individual differences in emotional, motor, & attentional reactivity and self-regulation . Ex: Infants differ in their reactions to new situations (fearful or bold); some infants cry easily, others seem “born tough” Behaviorism ~ Infant’s emotions and personality are molded as parents reinforce or punish child’s spontaneous behavior - Social referencing strengthens learning by observation - Criticism: Both psychodynamic theory & behaviorism view the role of mother (caregiver) too narrowly Epigenetic Theory - Epigenetic theory holds that child-rearing practices shape inborn predispositions (environment influencing genetics) - Ex: A “naturally” fearful infant becomes less fearful in the context of a supportive parent who encourages bravery Temperament 2/18/2010 Thomas & Chess, 1956 - Temperament is predictive of psychological adjustment later in life - Parenting practices can modify children’s emotional styles . Temperament vs. Personality n Temperamental traits are primarily genetic ‘ shyness a Personality traits are learned - honesty, humility Mary Rothbart, 1981 - Uses 6 dimensions to represent 3 underlying components of temperament v Emotion n Attention n Action - Components form an integrated system of capacities and limitations Measuring Temperament . Parent report a Limitations? - Laboratory observation - Psychophysiological outcome measures 0 Heart rate, EEG asymmetry, hormone levels 2/18/2010 Components of Temperament - Dimensions: Activity level . Approach-withdrawal Adaptability Quality of mood Attention span 8: persistence Distractibility Rhythmicity (regularity) Intensity of reaction Threshold of responsiveness 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ‘ ~:r u ma" 1 W. Components of Temperament . Dimensions: 1. Fearful distress 2. Irritabledistress 3. Positive affect 4. Activity level 5. Attention span/persistence 6. Rhythmicity NYLS Study of Temperament - used Thomas & Chess’ measurement system . Results: n EASY (40%) = SLOW TO WARM UP (15%) u DIFFICULT (10%) n HARDTO CLASSIFY (35%) Temperament and Caregiving - It is important to appreciate each child’s unique temperament - Goodness of fit: the match between the child’s temperament and the patterns of child rearing used by parents a especially important for a child with a difiicult temperament Stability of Temperament . So, is temperament a predictor of later adult personality? - Several aspects of temperament are moderately stable through childhood into early adulthood . and can predict antisocial tendencies and the quality of their personal and family relationships at 18—21 years New Directions in Temperament - Behavioral Inhibition = Inhibited: shy, withdrawn -= Uninhibited: sociable, “outgoing” a Moderately stable attribute that may have significant biological roots a Children at extremes of continuum were most likely to display long-term stability 2/18/2010 > warm» Genetics & Environment _ - Responsible for about half of Genetic individual differences Influences - Ethnicity. gender - Cultural caregiving styles Environmental - Boys 8. girls treated differently Influences - Parents emphasize sibling differences Goodness - Combines genetics and environment Of Fit {hanges in Temperament',8etween Ages 4 Months and 4 Years _ Inhibited (mam) aim-unis and... rainy. (mum) at 4 momma... V . Variabie (sometimes positivesumetimesmt} Fearfuuerery later time) Some: named from Fox at 31.10!!!) i; Sociocultural / Ethnotheory - Sociocultural theory places a strong emphasis on the role of the entire social context on infant development . Ethnotheory states that child~rearing practices (e.g., co—sleeping or not) are embedded within each culture or ethnic group a some cultures value certain emotions over others I5 Proximal and Distal Parenting . A study of West African and Greek parents found differences in infant-caregiver play - West African mothers were more likely to use proximal parenting (keeping the infant physically near), ' . whereas Greek parents used distal parenting (physically distant) Proximal and Distal Parenting - The researchers found that proximal parenting at 3 months predicted more compliant behavior at 1V2 YYS, - whereas distal parenting predicted greater self- recognition (a sign of independence) 2/18/2010...
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