3.9.10 - Spring 2010 Dr Christine Hughes University of...

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Unformatted text preview: Spring 2010 Dr. Christine Hughes University of Miami Language - Fast mapping is the speedy and imprecise way in which children learn new words by mentally charting them into categories. D Ex: A child has an “animal” category in mind. Therefore, learning “tiger” is easy if he already knows “lion.” ‘Inluenc’e of on Lg E g E mmmmmmmw mmmnyLm l l l 1 . huh-hum worldview“ Weller-aunts 19-12 was 17-20 21.2: 25-22 M was mammals-n.) 3/9/2010 Language - Early childhood appears to be a sensitive period for rapidly and easily mastering u Vocabulary a Grammar v Pronunciation - 2-6 yr olds learn an average of 10 new words a day! .0 be.oo wtc?v=" TABLE 9.2 AT ABOUT nus TIME: Language in Early Childhood Approximate Age Characteristic or Achievement 2 years Vocabulary: 100—2000 words Sentence length: 26 words Grammar: Plurals, pronouns, many nouns. verbs. adjectives Questions: Many "What’s that?" questions Vocabulary: 1.000~5,000 words Sentence length: 3-8 words Grammar: Conjunctions, adverbs. articles Questions: Many “Why?” questions Vocabulary: 300040.000 words Sentence length: 520 words Grammar: Dependent clauses. tags at ends ofsentences (‘1 . .didn'x l?‘ ‘. . . won’t you?‘) Questions: Peak of “Why?” questions; also many “How?” and ‘When?’ questions Vocabulary: 5,000-20.000 words Sentence length: Some seem unending l”. : .and. . . who V . rand ,. . that. . . and , : .") Gramman Complex, sometimes using passive voice ('Man bitten by 609"); subjunctive (“if I were . . .“] Questions: include some about differences [male/female, old/young, rich/poor) Language ° Syntax — the combining of words and phrases to form meaningful sentences ‘M /F 77 - Grammar - the system of rules j J that determine how thoughts can Le “1124, be expressed mmmm one. Then are Mo of them. - word order, prefixes and suffixes, m m m intonation, emphasis ' Ex. a test of knowledge of grammar rules :wmaeemmmwwmww‘own»? 'v 1 Language Error ~ Young children sometimes use language errors: u Time, place, and comparison words are difficult, as well as metaphors D Overregularization: applying grammar rules even when exceptions occur ' He “good” to the store ' I “thinked” hard about it. h : www. outube.oom watch?v=A2e Bilingualism - A good solution is for a child to become a balanced bilingual: equally fluent in two languages. 0 Early childhood = an optimal time for this to occur. . Young children may make errors in both languages, but eventually sort them out... it 2 w. o tube.oo wa ?v= b2 1 v61 Early Childhood Education - Most 3-5 year olds in developed nations attend some type of school or preschool. 0 programs differ in philosophy, goals, and methods o Three main types are: =- Child—centered = Academic a Intervention 3/9/ 2010 km warm. W14“.WI,’EESW’W~’W' »» " Bilingualism ...is an asset! - By age 5, bilingual children have more advanced theory of mind & are less egocentric, but may lag in linguistic skills such as grammar development - Abilities recover to average (or above—average) by elementary school - Issues of cultural identity, as well as xenophobia, contribute to our nation’s debates over the value of bilingualism ass-(aémwwefimw, ‘ V v Learning to Read - Emergent literacy: early skills (e.g., letter recognition, page sequencing) that help children learn to read - What fosters emergent literacy? 0 Being read to by an adult n Symbolic play a Making up songs and rhymes Percentage of us. 3—, 4-, and 5-Year-0Ms Enrolled in Preprimary Programs 80 7O 60 50 40 30W, : Hear-olds 20 I 4-year-olds I 3-year-olds , 1965 1970 1975 1980 1935 1990 1995 2002 Year Source: Snyder. Tan, 5 Mofiman. 2004, p. 55. .v_mmsr.»m were” «W V' Child-centered Programs - Inspired by Piaget and Vygotsky, children are free to play and explore with guidance - Stress the child’s growth and development - Materials such as art, blocks, dress—up clothes are arranged for self-exploration - Children are encouraged to learn through play and artistic expression mm xaewemmw revive i a ‘~ Child-centered Programs: Montessori o Pretend and dramatic play is not encouraged— learning is the empha31s - Mixed age groups 0 Role of the teacher is to prepare and adapt the environment to mammize learnmg v Classroom arranged in work areas by subject n Free choice of what area to work in D No time limits - Children learn directly from environment, and others, rather than from the teacher unmadein mes-Wm» i: 3 Child-centered Programs: Reggio Emili - Believe children are strong, powerful, and competent from birth - Educators fill the simultaneous roles of partner, nurturer, guide, and researcher - High value placed on the physical environment U "third teacher" or "third edumtor“ v Parents are encouraged to be active contributors to chll‘ldrlen's achvrties 1]] the classroom and in the sc oo - Value art and creative play, and have a low teacher- child ratio, and h' u n . rent involvement. 3/9/2010 as, «an WWW mu- 5 ‘ 7v Child-centered Programs: Montessori - Dr. Maria Montessori (in 1936) believed that children need structured, individualized projects that give them a sense of accomplishment. - Goals = respected individual choice of work, and uninterrupted concentration (rather than group lessons led by an adult) o “Follow the child” theorem» moi/m \ 1mm ~~ Child-centered Programs: Reggio Emilia - Reggio Emilia is a region in Italy in which early education is high—quality and funded by the city. - created in 19405 ' Goal = to serve children‘s welfare and the social needs of families, while supporting children's fundamental right to grow and learn in favorable environments with key relationships that include cooperative peers and caring, professional adults asmmaw‘awwmmmm «s-w‘ 'u “ i Reggio Emilia-inspired classroom ’H«muxww~mnu¥mnw~wc 5* *3 Academic (Teacher-directed) Programs - These programs stress preparation for school a Teach children letters, numbers, shapes n Teach how to sit and listen quietly a Teachers direct the events of the day rrr-wm'xneseumzec-m W'wauq». ? ~“"!i Experimental Programs - Other intervention programs include: a Perry (High Scope) project a Abeoedarian = Chicago Child—Parent centers - These programs are effective in enhancing children’s cognitive skills and reducing negative life outcomes kaizm {re-Mgmwwwa. .1 c" i v, Quality Matters 0 A consistent finding in developmental research is that high-quality early childhood programs are associated with positive outcomes for children. 0 Quality measures include: trained staff, low adult-child ratio, positive interactions, safety, adequate space, and a curriculum. 3/9/2010 raw -'m -' s ‘ ‘ ‘2 Intervention Programs - Project Head Start is a federal program for low-income children (since 1965) u Goals include preparing kids for school, involving parents, providing nutrition and health care. - University of Miami —— Linda Ray Intervention Center - University of Miami — Debbie School new: mamw-Weawék r' 'I‘ 4 Focus is Prevention - Intervention programs are costly in the short term, costing several thousand dollars per child per year. 0 However, they are cost saving in the long run in terms of decreased need for special education for many children! ...
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