3.11.10 - Spring 2010 Dr. Christine Hughes University of...

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Unformatted text preview: Spring 2010 Dr. Christine Hughes University of Miami Pfide - Young children generally have a very positive self- concept and self-esteem - They overestimate their abilities - But, adult input matters! Initiative vs. Guilt - Guilth a more mature emotion than shame - Shame can be based on what one is, rather than on something one has done - internal vs. external like as individuals 3/11/2010 new: we.ka a each a» -. ilk: -; 1' Psychosocial Development - Children’s social and emotional development relate directly to their self-concept v their identity, or set of beliefs about what they are - self-esteem: person’s evaluation of his or her own worth - Reflects the particular way in which their culture views the self D Collectivistic orientation a Individualistic orientation Initiative vs. Guilt Erikson’s third stage (3—6 yrs) 0 Initiative: saying something new, extending a skill, or beginning a project - Guilt: makes children afraid to try things Intrinsic Motivation as. i’KwA‘i-mimr‘ivé’wkv-W» ha ray-Ah ékyfizraeemiet New gaggle)“ a. - Intrinsic motivation: drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to feel smart or competent - Extrinsic motivation: drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have one’s achievements rewarded from outside 0 Adults can encourage intrinsic motivation by not promising rewards for a task that is already enjoyable; instead, praise a job well done that Emotional Intelligence heexiévbéwxmkbgwxu statesman-“anew v‘ Emotional Regulation ' Involves learning how to interpret o Emotional regulation is learning to cope with .v and express emotions appropriately and direct one’s emotions. - As the prefrontal cortex develops, : children’s ability to regulate ' emotions improves. o Influenced by: u Genes v Early experienca (especially stressors) Culture Parenting Gender Attachment - Caregivers also play a role in teaching emotional intelligence. I ' <raaw.mr""» :wwww Types of Play 1. importance of Play - It is natural and beneficial for young children to PLAY! Solitary = play alone Onlooker = watch others . Parallel = play with similar toys in similar ways, - Jean Piaget said, “Play is the work but dam interact of the child.” Associative = interact and share emotions, but - Functional vs. Constructive “m in same game Cooperative = play together, with common goal, taking turns Rough and tumble = mimics aggression, but is in fun iwx-vszs‘rzwswsilvsaww M»? We” " Types of Play ‘ Types of Play - Sociodramafic play helps children: " Explore and rehearse social roles they have observed - Sociodramatic Play = Pretend play in which children act out self—created roles and themes ~ Ex: Playing house, doctor, superheroes, or school a Practice regulating emotions . _ through imagination ' Why would this bemficml? u learn to negotiateand cooperate with others a Test their ability to explain and to convince playmates of their ideas a Develop a self-concept in a nonthreatening context 3/ 1 1/ 2010 A.th wane-1:. - . ~ vz,sa<:,m,gaw,-.i {W‘me'méz'smm .sesi». "L Challenge for Parents - Parents differ a great deal in what they believe about children and how they should act toward them ' Tend to follow the child-rearing patterns of their own parents - Need to decide on a parenting style, and agree to support each other in following it Authoritative style - High Warmth o High level of communication 0 Moderate expectations for maturity - Discipline strategies involve much discussion, firm but fair limits c'» ’ "-4 v Permissive style . High warmth ' High amount of communication - Few to no expectations ~ Little to no discipline Parenting Styles - Diana Baumrind found that parents differ on four dimensions of parenting: D Expressions of warmth D Strategies for discipline D Quality of communication a Expectations for maturity Authoritarian style - Little Warmth - Communication is one way (commands of parent) ’ Very high expectations for maturity - Strict, often physical discipline strategies twexnwwrwmwimmw mi. er Outcomes of Parenting Styles o Which parenting style would you guess is associated with the following outcomes? u Children are obedient, not happy 0 Children lack self—control, are not happy a Children are successful, articulate, intelligent, and happy 3/11/2010 Abusivv . = Some patents“ discipline isnot mly'hmh bin also'inmusimm, . , r . ‘ without concern for medium“; rivetLbcingt Unlixe in amimm * . families. guidelines are Chfldren‘ are punished without ' ' immune why or. worse. knowing rm the lhcywenl's' r . drinking; drug use, or miml'insmbllity ‘ . ' ‘ ' ' ' ' mime; '1' Somepawnm i3er nemteresxln mm Role um flaunfiihd‘s'permlhsiyepamis lo' ' ‘ airmail"maximum-1m arr-mmwlmsim wairlressm__ v or wen'well groomed-Junie“ they mam. be. mi: pémiulilé semis . ', nomiiyare ver'y concerned about their cnfldren's'sareryend I V ' ~ _’ V They are involved. just no! directive; ; : I , ; ' barman; : in manner: parentian meal-lumen have an aqua! say in what , ' . I > ' 2 mums Such {unifies might have {entity meetings; inwhlch mus V - V, dime issues aft-t)an to any member; and a Wu '. reached or a decision is madeby majority you; in . . 2 (amines. by ruminant. this par-erroth the 1mm the agendavanfl ' make the rules, listening mu adjusting only, if and “than they to flow, .. V .V V _ ._ _ 'l‘radilkmfl a i In sans-tumult; the-tamer is the strict disciplihsrian ma the mother is. v: the lndiflg‘em hmfiemuk'fli He is seen as the Madman; Milly, and her inth! threat is "W have total! your l'nthé‘. about this,“ 'fliis V " 1. palm works“ both parents l‘mdgrsmu'fl and respect” each gamers mix» 1 , mtmcmidmsmrrmizmmwmrm’mlmw , zasdfhaawzanwmi 'w‘ a» s Discipline Related to Development - Theory of mind - Emerging self—concept - Language explosion - Not yet logical thinkers \i‘m‘ ‘Msiww " Physical Punishment - Young children (2—6yrs) are slapped, spanked, or beaten more often than c ildren of any other age. - Man parents remember being span ed themselves and think spanking works well. - AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics: 5 ankmg is never an appropriate isc1pline technique mimics Other Styles of 9mm.“ . I ‘ $63.19;} in My“: Discipline Strategies - No one strategy is a “cure—all.” ‘ Techniques are often rooted in culture ‘ All strategies should consider a child’s current developmental stage and abilities. - Specific discipline methods and family rules are less important than: a parental warmth, support, and concern 3/11/2010 warm- ' a: Moral Development - Empathy: a true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another =- results in prosocial behavior a is related to theory of mind - Antipathy: a dislike or hatred of people n results in antisocial behavior mtxfisehimfihim" ' .,,1W\« Other Strategies ' psychological control: disciplinary technique involving threatening to withdraw love and support - time-out: disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a ' specified time ,merwssswséé >"4m-‘n‘mw22a5V " Behavior Problems - Extemalizing problems occur when a child turns emotional distress outward 0 Intemalizing problems occur when a child turns emotional distress inward »-,,.r- 3 was,» Mme-«Mawsz .,_ Types. of Aggression o Instrumental: Used to obtain an object such as a toy - Reactive: Retaliation for an act, whether or not it was intentional lam." v.22»tamewmwmvwww—s' ‘ 4 ‘ Challenge of the Media 1be mayo" gr: qfl'tlm roWnIr' and ward: m/m' 'I‘Vt” Aggression - All children experience the emotion of anger, but aggression involves hostile attitudes and hurtfizl, destructive behavior towards others. ' Some types of aggression are more troublesome and long—lasting than others. Types of Aggression - Relational: Insults or social rejection intended to hurt another - Bullying: Unprovoked, repeated attack to inflict physical or mental harm ‘ -"" Challenge of the Media 0 U.S. children age 2-5 years spend over 4 hours a day watching TV ‘ TV sets outnumber people in the U.S. - TV in the bedroom? a 20% of children under 3 a 43% of children 3-4 years 3/11/2010 w%¥:»»-ww~ésm -"? mkwieifimsmama Challenge of the Media - Several U.S. organizations strongly recommend parents reduce children’s exposure to violent media. a While it cannot be said that exposure to violent media causes a child to be violent or aggressive, may influence an already aggressive child the most. - Overuse of the media takes away time for imaginative and social play, and reduces time for parent—child interaction. W§Q§W§qffigwnwxuV~sensual-«Inf 31.: "; Boy or Girl: So What? - Sex differences = biological differences between males and females - Gender differences = culturally imposed differences in the roles and behaviors of males and females - Use of “sex” refers to physical differences. - Use of “gender” refers to cultural/social differences between the sexes. sadism-r Lam” rf3>iM' umw-r-tw Theories of Gender Differences - Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) -= Phallic stage 0 Identification = defense mechanism that lets a person symbolically take on behaviors and attitudes of someone more powerful than himself or herself u Superego = personality part that is self-critical and judgmental Preference & Prejudice - Young children are able to show pride in their own “group” while avoiding prejudice of others. 0 Children begin to identify with a certain racial group during this time. - Children eventually learn specific prejudices and group characterizations n based on their own family, culture, society 3/11/2010 f5:’~§,ér}v2‘55wwfimlwiin-.—'L,u:4§" ,. I ' Development of Gender Awareness - By 2: cognitive awareness of gender; gender- related preferences and play patterns are apparent - By 3: rudimentary awareness that gender distinctions are stable 0 By 4: awareness of “gender-appropriate” toys and roles o By 6: well-formed ideas and prejudices about own and other sex h : w. on beco watch?v= Wcle = 1 BB ' d =1 &feature=Pla List& an» " Theories of Gender Differences Psychoanalytic Theory, cont. - Oedipus (boys) and Electra (girls) complexes of phallic stage a Guilt and fear are resolved by gender-appropriate behavior a No longer a popular theory—afien same—sex parent is not present 3/11/2010 aseeaflwullmukwww'm' ‘ «mdmwwwww Behavion’st Theory of Gender cognitive Theory Of Geder - Gender roles are learned through ‘ - Gender schemns observation and imitation. organize the world into “male” and “female” Who takes out the garbage? activities Who writes thank you notes? . . . Who makes dinner? ' Thls ls guldegl by-an ‘ - internal motivation to Who fixes the toilet? .; ) conform to sociocultural ‘ “ ' standards of gender. “15 this a boy/girl thing to do?” xwéhmwemwmmmwwwa «we fi" :91: Linwes. mmbé" Sociocultural Theory of Gender Epigenetic Theory Of Gender . Children learn the preferred - Gender-typed behavior is shaped by behavior for men and women in g BOTH genetic difl'erences their society. ' f between male and female brains, ’ ' ‘ and environmental influences. - Androgyny = a healthy balance of ' " male and female psychological characteristiu; - IS a complex Interactlon of both of these things B Is a psychologically healthy way to be ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course PSY 110 taught by Professor Winters during the Spring '08 term at University of Miami.

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3.11.10 - Spring 2010 Dr. Christine Hughes University of...

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