4.1.10 - Developmental Psychopathology Child Adolescent...

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4/1/2010 1 Child & Adolescent Development PSY 203 T Spring 2010 Dr. Christine Hughes University of Miami Developmental Psychopathology applies insights about typical development to study and treat various disorders Disability can change over time Adolescence and adulthood may be better or worse Diagnosis depends on social context Learning Disability A marked delay in a particular area of learning not associated with any physical handicap, mental retardation, or unusually stressful home environment. DSM-IV- TR: academic functioning that is substantially below that expected given their chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education A measured discrepancy between aptitude and achievement. Aptitude vs. Achievement Aptitude = our potential ability Intellectual potential; potential ability to learn Achievement = our ability to learn that which we’ve been taught what or how well we’ve learned Dyslexia Represents unusual difficulty with reading Problem may involve auditory processing of sounds (possible neurological basis) Gender difference ~ 4% of U.S. school-age children Criteria for Diagnosis also known as ―Reading Disorder‖ Involves difficulty in reading accuracy, speed, or comprehension Oral reading characterized by: distortions, substitutions, or omissions Oral and silent reading: slowness & errors in comprehension
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4/1/2010 2 Early Education for Dyslexia Individualized instruction before age 6 often helps minimize the problem How? Unfortunately, many children don’t receive early intervention Attention Disorders ADD and ADHD are both neurological disorders involving difficulty screening out irrelevant stimuli. Possible causes : abnormality in brain or neurotransmitters prenatal damage genetic vulnerability postnatal damage Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Difficulty concentrating May seem lost in thought, ―spaced out‖ Increased risk for: serious behavior problems a learning disability in reading deficits in social skills Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Difficulty concentrating for more than a few minutes at a time
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