lectures for first exam

lectures for first exam - I. II. III. Definition of Animal...

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+ + - - I. Definition of Animal Behavior: Any observable thing an animal does a. Covers broad range of activities from involuntary muscle movements to animal intelligence an social behavior b. Why? i. Exploit animals more efficiently 1. Want to domesticate animals 2. Use as food ii. Protect and conserve animals better iii. Academic reasons c. What kinds of questions? i. Mechanistic: how? ii. Evolutionary: Survival value 1. Proximate=near 2. Ultimate=last iii. Developmental: is behavior innate, genetic, environmental, cognitive? II. Techniques for Studying Animal Behavior a. Observation i. Can see CORRELATIONS 2 events occur together in time (not necessarily simultaneously) ii. CAUSATION did one event happen because of other, different from correlation b. Experimentation i. Can see causation c. Comparative Approach i. Use to answer questions about evolution III. Examples a. Observational Study:
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i. Why do crab-eating macoques (Southeast Asian monkey) use special sleeping trees? Each troop had its own tree to sleep in but why? ii. Possible explanations: Food source, predator avoidance, advertisement, proclaim territory 1. Food source explanation no good! 2. Trees were dead and otherwise held no fruit 3. Monkeys traveled to trees with fruit but would return to the sleeping tree 4. Potential predators sometimes chose same trees as monkeys 5. After 9 months of observation, was no predation 6. Most troops chose tree opposite of another troops tree, they did not cross the river to forage in the other troop’s territory. If there wasn’t another troop’s tree opposite, the monkeys did go across the river. a. Supports advertisement/territorial behavior! b. Experimental Study: i. How do night flying owls and bats find their way in the dark (series of experiments in 1790s) ii. Spallanzani’s 1 st experiment: 1. Manipulation: blind folded owls and test flying ability 2. Result: blindfolded owls didn’t fly well without sight 3. Conclusion: Owls needed sight to fly at night iii. Spallanzani’s 2 nd experiment: 1. Blind folded bats to test flying ability 2. Compare stomach contents of blinded folded bats with non blind folded bats 3. Blindfolded bats flew and fed as well as non blinded bats don’t need sight to fly at night iv. Spallanzani’s 3 rd experiments: 1. Plugged ears of bats 2. Compared stomach contents to controls
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3. Found deaf bats did not fly and feed as well as non deafened bats 4. Thought needed hearing to fly at night? v. Spallanzani’s 4 th experiment: 1. Thought bats might be just uncomfortable with objects in ears 2. Used hollow brass tubes-plugged and unplugged 3. Found bats that had unplugged tubes in ears flew and fed better than bats with plugged tubes 4. Bats need hearing to fly at night! (echolocation eventually proven) c. Comparative Study: i. The case of Hilara sartor (fly type insect)- during courtship, male brings “neutral gift” to female 1. Neutral gift is like a silk balloon; female takes the gift in her legs, the male
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lectures for first exam - I. II. III. Definition of Animal...

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